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Not willing to make sacrifices for creation of Palestinian state1411Source: Kul AlArab, 2000 135Some Israeli politicians advocate landswap proposals in order to assure a continued Jewish majority within Israel. A specific proposal is that Israel transfer sovereignty of part of the Arabpopulated Wadi Ara area (west of the Green Line ) to a future Palestinian state, in return for formal sovereignty over the major Jewish settlement blocks that lie inside the West Bank east of the Green Line. 136Avigdor Lieberman of Yisrael Beiteinu , the fourth largest faction in the 17th Knesset, is one of the foremost advocates of the transfer of large Arab towns located just inside Israel near the border with the West Bank (e.g. Tayibe , Umm alFahm , Baqa alGharbiyye ), to the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority in exchange for Israeli settlements located inside the West Bank . 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144In October 2006, Yisrael Beiteinu formally joined in the ruling governments parliamentary coalition, headed by Kadima . After the Israeli Cabinet confirmed Avigdor Liebermans appointment to the position of minister for strategic threats, Labour Party representative and science, sport and culture minister Ophir PinesPaz resigned his post. 55 145 In his resignation letter to Ehud Olmert, PinesPaz wrote: I couldnt sit in a government with a minister who preaches racism. 146The Lieberman Plan caused a stir among Arab citizens of Israel. Various polls show that Arabs in Israel do not wish to move to the West Bank or Gaza if a Palestinian state is created there. 147 In a survey conducted by Kul AlArab among 1,000 residents of Um AlFahm, 83 percent of respondents opposed the idea of transferring their city to Palestinian jurisdiction, while 11 percent supported the proposal and 6 percent did not express their position. 135Of those opposed to the idea, 54 said that they were against becoming part of a Palestinian state because they wanted to continue living under a democratic regime and enjoying a good standard of living. Of these opponents, 18 said that they were satisfied with their present situation, that they were born in Israel and that they were not interested in moving to any other state. Another 14 of this same group said that they were not prepared to make sacrifices for the sake of the creation of a Palestinian state. Another 11 percent cited no reason for their opposition. 135PoliticsArab political partiesThere are three mainstream Arab parties in Israel: Hadash (a joint ArabJewish party with a large Arab presence), Balad , and the United Arab List , which is a coalition of several different political organizations including the Islamic Movement in Israel . In addition to these, there is Taal . All of these parties primarily represent ArabIsraeli and Palestinian interests, and the Islamic Movement is an Islamist organization with two factions: one that opposes Israels existence, and another that opposes its existence as a Jewish state. Two Arab parties ran in Israels first election in 1949 , with one, the Democratic List of Nazareth , winning two seats. Until the 1960s all Arab parties in the Knesset were aligned with Mapai , the ruling party.A minority of Arabs join and vote for Zionist parties in the 2006 elections 30 of the Arab vote went to such parties, up from 25 in 2003 , 148 though down on the 1999 (30.5) and 1996 elections (33.4). 149 Leftwing parties (i.e. Labor Party and MeretzYachad , and previously One Nation ) are the most popular parties amongst Arabs, though some Druze have also voted for rightwing parties such as Likud and Yisrael Beiteinu , as well as the centrist Kadima . 150 151Arabdominated parties typically do not join governing coalitions. However, historically these parties have formed alliances with dovish Israeli parties and promoted the formation of their governments by voting with them from the opposition. Arab parties are credited with keeping Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in power, and they have suggested they would do the same for a government led by Labor leader Isaac Herzog and peace negotiator Tzipi Livni . 152 153 A 2015 Haaretz poll found that a majority of Israeli Arabs would like their parties, then running on a joint list , to join the governing coalition. 154Representation in the KnessetAhmad Tibi , leader of the Arab party Taal currently serves as Deputy Speaker of the KnessetPalestinian Arabs sat in the states first parliamentary assembly as of 2011, 13 of the 120 members of the Israeli Parliament are Arab citizens, most representing Arab political parties, and one of Israels Supreme Court judges is a Palestinian Arab. 155As of 2015, there are 17 Arab members of knesset. Along with 13 out of the 14 members of the Joint List, there will be four Arab parliamentarians representing Zionist parties, which is double their number in the previous Knesset. 156Some Arab Members of the Knesset, past and present, are under police investigation for their visits to countries designated as enemy countries by Israeli law. This law was amended following MK Mohammad Barakehs trip to Syria in 2001, such that MKs must explicitly request permission to visit these countries from the Minister of the Interior. In August 2006, Balad MKs Azmi Bishara , Jamal Zahalka , and Wasil Taha visited Syria without requesting nor receiving such permission, and a criminal investigation of their actions was launched. Former Arab Member of Knesset Mohammed Miari was questioned 18 September 2006 by police on suspicion of having entered a designated enemy country without official permission. He was questioned under caution for 2.5 hours in the Petah Tikva station about his recent visit to Syria. Another former Arab Member of Knesset, Muhammad Kanaan , was also summoned for police questioning regarding the same trip. 157 In 2010, six Arab MKs visited Libya , an openly antiZionist Arab state, and met with Muammar alGaddafi and various senior government officials. Gaddafi urged them to seek a onestate solution , and for Arabs to multiply in order to counter any plots to expel them. 158According to a study commissioned by the Arab Association of Human Rights entitled Silencing Dissent, over the past three years, eight of nine of these Arab Knesset members have been beaten by Israeli forces during demonstrations. 159 Most recently according to the report, legislation has been passed, including three election laws e.g., banning political parties, and two Knesset related laws aimed to significantly curb the minority Arab population right to choose a public representative and for those representatives to develop independent political platforms and carry out their duties. 160Representation in the civil service sphereIn the public employment sphere, by the end of 2002, 6.1 of 56,362 Israeli civil servants were Arab. 161 In January 2004, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon declared that every staterun company must have at least one Arab citizen of Israel on its board of directors. 162Representation in political, judicial and military positionsArab Israeli Captain Amos Yarkoni , born Abd elMajid Hidr.Raleb Majadele , the first nonDruze Arab minister in Israels historyCabinet: Nawaf Massalha , an Arab Muslim, has served in various junior ministerial roles, including Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, since 1999. 163 Until 2001, no Arab had been included in a Prime Ministers cabinet. In 2001, this changed, when Salah Tarif , a Druze Arab citizen of Israel, was appointed a member of Sharons cabinet without a portfolio. Tarif was later ejected after being convicted of corruption. 164 In 2007 the first nonDruze Arab minister in Israels history, Raleb Majadele , was appointed a minister without portfolio, and a month later appointed minister for Science, Culture and Sport. 57 165 The appointment of Majadele was criticized by farright Israelis, some of whom are also within the Cabinet, but this drew condemnation across the mainstream Israeli political spectrum. 58 166 Meanwhile, Arab lawmakers called the appointment an attempt to whitewash Israels discriminatory policies against its Arab minority. 167 168Knesset: Arab citizens of Israel have been elected to every Knesset , and currently hold 17 of its 120 seats. The first female Arab MP was Hussniya Jabara , a Muslim Arab from central Israel, who was elected in 1999. 169Supreme Court: Abdel Rahman Zuabi , a Muslim from northern Israel, was the first Arab on the Israeli Supreme Court, serving a 9month term in 1999. In 2004, Salim Joubran , a Christian Arab from Haifa descended from Lebanese Maronites, became the first Arab to hold a permanent appointment on the Court. Joubrans expertise lies in the field of criminal law . 170 George Karra , a Christian Arab from Jaffa has served as a Tel Aviv District Court judge since 2000. He was the presiding judge in the trial of Moshe Katsav . In 2011, he was nominated as a candidate for the Israeli Supreme Court . 171Foreign Service: Ali Yahya , an Arab Muslim, became the first Arab ambassador for Israel in 1995 when he was appointed ambassador to Finland . He served until 1999, and in 2006 was appointed ambassador to Greece . Other Arab ambassadors include Walid Mansour , a Druze, appointed ambassador to Vietnam in 1999, and Reda Mansour , also a Druze, a former ambassador to Ecuador . Mohammed Masarwa , an Arab Muslim, was ConsulGeneral in Atlanta . In 2006, Ishmael Khaldi was appointed Israeli consul in San Francisco, becoming the first Bedouin consul of the State of Israel. 172Israel Defense Forces: Arab Generals in the IDF include Major General Hussain Fares, commander of Israels border police, and Major General Yosef Mishlav , head of the Home Front Command and current Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories . citation needed Both are members of the Druze community. Other highranking officers in the IDF include Lieutenant Colonel Amos Yarkoni (born Abd elMajid Hidr ) from the Bedouin community, a legendary officer in the Israel Defense Forces and one of six Israeli Arabs to have received the IDFs third highest decoration, the Medal of Distinguished Service .Israeli Police: In 2011, Jamal Hakroush became the first Muslim Arab deputy InspectorGeneral in the Israeli Police . He has previously served as district commander of two districts. 173Jewish National Fund: In 2007, Raadi Sfori became the first Arab citizen of Israel to be elected as a JNF director, over a petition against his appointment. The court upheld the JNFs appointment, explaining, As this is one director among a large number, there is no chance he will have the opportunity to cancel the organizations goals. 174Other political organizations and movementsAbna elBaladAbnaa elBalad 175 is a political movement that grew out of organizing by Arab university youth, beginning in 1969. 176 177 It is not affiliated with the Arab Knesset party Balad. While participating in municipal elections, Abnaa alBalad firmly reject any participation in the Israeli Knesset. Political demands include the return of all Palestinian refugees to their homes and lands, an end to the Israeli occupation and Zionist apartheid and the establishment of a democratic secular state in Palestine as the ultimate solution to the ArabZionist conflict. 178High FollowUp Committee for Arab Citizens of IsraelThe High FollowUp Committee for Arab Citizens of Israel is an extraparliamentary umbrella organization that represents Arab citizens of Israel at the national level. 179 It is the top representative body deliberating matters of general concern to the entire Arab community and making binding decisions. 180 While it enjoys de facto recognition from the State of Israel , it lacks official or de jure recognition from the state for its activities in this capacity. 179TaayushTaayush is a grassroots movement of Arabs and Jews working to break down the walls of racism and segregation by constructing a true ArabJewish partnership. 181Regional Council of Unrecognized VillagesThe Regional Council of Unrecognized Villages is a body of unofficial representatives of the unrecognized villages throughout the Negev region in the south.Attempts to ban Arab political partiesAmendment 9 to the Basic Law: The Knesset and the Law of Political Parties states that a political party may not participate in the elections if there is in its goals or actions a denial of the existence of the State of Israel as the state of the Jewish people, a denial of the democratic nature of the state, or incitement to racism. 182 183 A number of attempts were done to disqualify Arab parties based on this rule, however as of 2010, all such attempts were either rejected by the Israeli Central Elections Committee or overturned by the Israeli Supreme Court.Progressive List for PeaceAn Israeli Central Elections Committee ruling which allowed the Progressive List for Peace to run for the Knesset in 1988 was challenged based on this amendment, but the committees decision was upheld by the Israeli Supreme Court, which ruled that the PLPs platform calling for Israel to become a state of all its citizens does not violate the ideology of Israel as the State of the Jewish people, and thus section 7(a) does not apply. 184BaladIn December 2002, Azmi Bishara and his party, Balad , which calls for Israel to become a state of all its citizens, were banned by the Israeli Central Elections Committee , for refusing to recognize Israel as a Jewish and democratic state 185 and making statements promoting armed struggle against it. The Supreme Court overruled the decision in January 2003. 186 Bishara served as a Knesset member from 1996 to 2007. He reportedly told an audience in Lebanon in December 2005 that Arab citizens ...are like all Arabs, only with Israeli citizenship forced upon them ... Return Palestine to us and take your democracy with you. We Arabs are not interested in it. 187 Bishara resigned his Knesset office and left the country in 2007 amidst news that criminal charges were being laid against him. He has been charged with espionage and money laundering, stemming from allegations that he gave Hizbullah information on strategic targets that should be attacked with rockets during the 2006 Lebanon War , in exchange for large amounts of money. 188United Arab List Taal and BaladIn 2009, United Arab List Taal and Balad were disqualified, on grounds that they do not recognize the State of Israel and call for armed conflict against it. 189 The Supreme Court of Israel overturned the Committees decision by a majority of eight to one. 190Legal and political statusIsraels Declaration of Independence called for the establishment of a Jewish state with equality of social and political rights, irrespective of religion, race, or sex. 191The rights of citizens are guaranteed by a set of basic laws (Israel does not have a written constitution). 192 Although this set of laws does not explicitly include the term right to equality, the Israeli Supreme Court has consistently interpreted Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty 193 and Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation (1994) 194 as guaranteeing equal rights for all Israeli citizens. 195The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs states that Arab Israelis are citizens of Israel with equal rights and states that The only legal distinction between Arab and Jewish citizens is not one of rights, but rather of civic duty. Since Israels establishment, Arab citizens have been exempted from compulsory service in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). 196 Druze and Circassians are drafted into the Israeli army, while other Arabs may serve voluntarily however, only a very small number of Arabs choose to volunteer for the Israeli army 197 ).Many Arab citizens feel that the state, as well as society at large, not only actively limits them to secondclass citizenship, but treats them as enemies, affecting their perception of the de jure versus de facto quality of their citizenship. 198 The joint document The Future Vision of the Palestinian Arabs in Israel , asserts: Defining the Israeli State as a Jewish State and exploiting democracy in the service of its Jewishness excludes us, and creates tension between us and the nature and essence of the State. The document explains that by definition the Jewish State concept is based on ethnically preferential treatment towards Jews enshrined in immigration (the Law of Return ) and land policy (the Jewish National Fund ), and calls for the establishment of minority rights protections enforced by an independent antidiscrimination commission. 199A 2004 report by Mossawa , an advocacy center for PalestinianArab citizens of Israel, states that since the events of October 2000 , 16 Arabs had been killed by security forces, bringing the total to 29 victims of institutional violence in four years. 200 Ahmed Saadi, in his article on The Concept of Protest and its Representation by the Or Commission, states that since 1948 the only protestors to be killed by the police have been Arabs. 201Yousef Munayyer, an Israeli citizen and the executive director of The Jerusalem Fund , wrote that Palestinians only have varying degrees of limited rights in Israel. He states that although Palestinians make up about 20 percent of Israels population, less than 7 percent of the budget is allocated to Palestinian citizens. He describes the 1.5 million Arab citizens of Israel as secondclass citizens while four million more are not citizens at all. He states that a Jew from any country can move to Israel but a Palestinian refugee, with a valid claim to property in Israel, cannot. Munayyer also described the difficulties he and his wife faced when visiting the country. 202Arabic and Hebrew as official languagesIsraeli road signs in Arabic, Hebrew and EnglishArabic is one of Israels official languages, and the use of Arabic increased significantly following Supreme Court rulings in the 1990s. Government ministries publish all material intended for the public in Hebrew, with selected material translated into Arabic, English, Russian, and other languages spoken in Israel. There are laws that secure the Arab populations right to receive information in Arabic. Some examples include a portion of the public television channels productions must be in Arabic or translated into Arabic, safety regulations in working places must be published in Arabic if a significant number of the workers are Arabs, information about medicines or dangerous chemicals must be provided in Arabic, and information regarding elections must be provided in Arabic. The countrys laws are published in Hebrew, and eventually English and Arabic translations are published. 62 Publishing the law in Hebrew in the official gazette ( Reshumot ) is enough to make it valid. Unavailability of an Arabic translation can be regarded as a legal defense only if the defendant proves he could not understand the meaning of the law in any conceivable way. Following appeals to the Israeli Supreme Court, the use of Arabic on street signs and labels increased dramatically. In response to one of the appeals presented by Arab Israeli organizations, which? the Supreme Court ruled that although second to Hebrew, Arabic is an official language of the State of Israel, and should be used extensively. Today most highway signage is trilingual (Hebrew, Arabic, and English).Many Arab villages lack street signs of any kind and the Hebrew name is often used. 203 204 The states schools in Arab communities teach in Arabic according to a specially adapted curriculum. This curriculum includes mandatory lessons of Hebrew as foreign language from the 3rd grade onwards. Arabic is taught in Hebrewspeaking schools, but only the basic level is mandatory. In the summer of 2008, there was an unsuccessful attempt of rightwing lawmakers to strip Arabic of its status alongside Hebrew as an official language of the state. 205Israeli national symbolsThe flag of Israel , based on the Star of DavidSome Arab politicians have requested a reevaluation of the Israeli flag and national anthem , arguing that the Star of David at the flags center is an exclusively Jewish symbol, and Hatikvah does not represent Arab citizens, since it speaks of the Jewish peoples desire to return to their homeland. The High FollowUp Committee for Arab Citizens of Israel and the National Committee for the Heads of the Arab Local Authorities in Israel stated in 2006, 206The Israeli legal system includes a number of core laws that produce and reinforce inequality between the Arabs and the Jews in Israel. ... The official bias is not restricted to symbols such as the Israeli flag, but also to deeper legal issues concerning all Palestinian Arabs ... the official definition of Israel as a Jewish state created a fortified ideological barrier in the face of obtaining full equality for the Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel ... We, the Palestinians in Israel, are an integral part of this place ... Israel has tried over the past decades to disengage us from this place, not through physical transfer but through intellectual emotional transfer. Israel has tried to create a new identity on the basis of loyalty to the state ... The State has not determined a position acceptable to us yet in terms of nurturing our Arab culture.Michael Oren , the former Israeli ambassador to the United Nations , has argued that since the Seal of Solomon (Star of David) is also considered to be an Islamic symbol, Arab citizens of Israel should be able to feel the same sense of loyalty to the flag as Jewish citizens do. 207Independence DayIn Israel, Independence Day takes place on 5 Iyar according to the Hebrew calendar , which means it falls on different dates every year under the Gregorian calendar . Arab citizens of Israel generally mark alNakba both on this day, and on 15 May, as do other Palestinians. 208 Druze soldiers, however, were present at Israels first Independence Day Parade in 1949, 209 and there have since been parades for Druze and Circassians , as well as special events for Bedouins, on Independence Day. 210In January 2008, the mayor of ShefaAmr , Ursan Yassin, met with officials of the Israeli state committee on the celebrations for the 60th anniversary of independence and announced that ShefaAmr intended to take part in the celebrations. He stated: This is our country and we completely disapprove of the statements made by the Higher Monitoring Committee. I want to hold a central ceremony in ShefaAmr, raise all the flags and have a huge feast. The 40,000 residents of ShefaAmr feel that they are a part of the State of Israel...The desire to participate in the festivities is shared by most of the residents. We will not raise our children to hate the country. This is our country and we want to live in coexistence with its Jewish residents. 211Citizenship and Entry LawOn 31 July 2003, Israel enacted the Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Provision), 57632003, a oneyear amendment to Israels Citizenship Law denying citizenship and Israeli residence to Palestinians who reside in the West Bank or Gaza Strip and who marry Israelis the rule has been waived for any Palestinian who identifies with the State of Israel and its goals, when he or a member of his family has taken concrete action to advance the security, economy or any other matter important to the State. Upon expiration the law was extended for six months in August 2004, and again for four months in February 2005. 212 On 8 May 2005, the Israeli ministerial committee for issues of legislation once again amended the Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law, to restrict citizenship and residence in Israel only to Palestinian men over the age of 35, and Palestinian women over the age of 25.Defenders of the Citizenship and Entry Law say it is aimed at preventing terrorist attacks and preserving the Jewish character of Israel by restricting Arab immigration. 213 The new bill was formulated in accordance with Shin Bet statistics showing that involvement in terror attacks declines with age. This newest amendment, in practice, removes restrictions from half of the Palestinian population requesting legal status through marriage in Israel. This law was upheld by a High Court decision in 2006. 213Although this law theoretically applies to all Israelis, it has disproportionately affected Arab citizens of Israel 214 Arabs are far more likely to have Palestinian spouses than other Israelis. 215 Thus the law has been widely considered discriminatory 216 and the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has unanimously approved a resolution saying that the Israeli law violated an international human rights treaty against racism. 217Civil rightsMain article: Ethnic discrimination in Israel Directed at ArabsThe Israeli Declaration of Independence stated that the State of Israel would ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex, and guaranteed freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture. While formally equal according to Israeli law, a number of official sources acknowledge that Arab citizens of Israel experience discrimination in many aspects of life. Israeli High Court Justice (Ret.) Theodor Or wrote in The Report by the State Commission of Inquiry into the Events of October 2000 : 218The Arab citizens of Israel live in a reality in which they experience discrimination as Arabs. This inequality has been documented in a large number of professional surveys and studies, has been confirmed in court judgments and government resolutions, and has also found expression in reports by the state comptroller and in other official documents. Although the Jewish majoritys awareness of this discrimination is often quite low, it plays a central role in the sensibilities and attitudes of Arab citizens. This discrimination is widely accepted, both within the Arab sector and outside it, and by official assessments, as a chief cause of agitation.The Or Commission report also states that activities by Islamic organizations may be using religious pretenses to further political aims. The commission describes such actions as a factor in inflaming the Muslim population in Israel against the authorities, and cites the alSarafand mosque episode, with Muslims attempts to restore the mosque and Jewish attempts to stop them, as an example of the shifting of dynamics of the relationship between Muslims and the Israeli authorities.According to the 2004 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for Israel and the Occupied Territories, the Israeli government had done little to reduce institutional, legal, and societal discrimination against the countrys Arab citizens. 219The 2004 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 219 notes that:IsraeliArab advocacy organizations have challenged the Governments policy of demolishing illegal buildings in the Arab sector, and claimed that the Government was more restrictive in issuing building permits in Arab communities than in Jewish communities, thereby not accommodating natural growth.In June, the Supreme Court ruled that omitting Arab towns from specific government social and economic plans is discriminatory. This judgment builds on previous assessments of disadvantages suffered by Arab Israelis.IsraeliArab organizations have challenged as discriminatory the 1996 Master Plan for the Northern Areas of Israel, which listed as priority goals increasing the Galilees Jewish population and blocking the territorial contiguity of Arab towns.Israeli Arabs were not required to perform mandatory military service and, in practice, only a small percentage of Israeli Arabs served in the military. Those who did not serve in the army had less access than other citizens to social and economic benefits for which military service was a prerequisite or an advantage, such as housing, newhousehold subsidies, and employment, especially government or securityrelated industrial employment. The Ivri Committee on National Service has issued official recommendations to the Government that Israel Arabs not be compelled to perform national or civic service, but be afforded an opportunity to perform such service.According to a 2003 University of Haifa study, a tendency existed to impose heavier prison terms to Arab citizens than to Jewish citizens. Human rights advocates claimed that Arab citizens were more likely to be convicted of murder and to have been denied bail.The Orr Commission of Inquirys report stated that the Government handling of the Arab sector has been primarily neglectful and discriminatory, that the Government did not show sufficient sensitivity to the needs of the Arab population, and did not take enough action to allocate state resources in an equal manner. As a result, serious distress prevailed in the Arab sector in various areas. Evidence of distress included poverty, unemployment, a shortage of land, serious problems in the education system, and substantially defective infrastructure.The 2007 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 220 notes that:According to a 2005 study at Hebrew University, three times more money was invested in education of Jewish children as in Arab children.Human Rights Watch has charged that cuts in veteran benefits and child allowances based on parents military service discriminate against Arab children: The cuts will also affect the children of Jewish ultraorthodox parents who do not serve in the military, but they are eligible for extra subsidies, including educational supplements, not available to Palestinian Arab children. 221According to the Guardian, in 2006 just 5 of civil servants were Arabs, many of them hired to deal with other Arabs, despite the fact that Arab citizens of Israel comprise 20 of the population. 222Although the Bedouin infant mortality rate is still the highest in Israel, and one of the highest in the developed world, The Guardian reports that in the 2002 budget, Israels health ministry allocated Arab communities less than 0.6 of its budget for healthcare facility development. 222In March 2010, a report released by several Israeli civil rights groups stated that the current Knesset was the most racist in Israeli history with 21 bills proposed in 2008 and 2009 that would discriminate against the countrys Arab minority. 223A preliminary report commissioned by Israels Courts Administration and the Israel Bar Association found in 2011 that Israeli Arabs are more likely than Israeli Jews to be convicted of crimes after being charged, more likely to be given custodial sentences, and were given longer sentences. It did not account for mitigating or aggravating circumstances, prior criminal record and the convicts gender. 224Property ownership and housingJNF collection boxes were used in Jewish communities around the world to collect donations for buying lands, planting forests and settling Jews in IsraelThe Jewish National Fund is a private organization established in 1901 to buy and develop land in the Land of Israel for Jewish settlement land purchases were funded by donations from world Jewry exclusively for that purpose. 225 The JNF currently owns 13 of land in Israel, 226 227 while 79.5 is owned by the government, and the rest, around 6.5, is evenly divided between private Arab and Jewish owners. 228 Thus, the Israel Land Administration (ILA) administers 93.5 of the land in Israel (Government Press Office, Israel, 22 May 1997). A significant portion of JNF lands were originally properties left behind by Palestinian absentees and as a result the legitimacy of some JNF land ownership has been a matter of dispute. 225 229 230 231 The JNF purchased these lands from the State of Israel between 1949 and 1953, after the state took control of them according to the Absentee Properties Law . 114 232 While the JNF charter specifies the land is for the use of the Jewish People, land has been leased to Bedouin herders. 233 Nevertheless, JNF land policy has been criticized as discrimination. 114 When the ILA leased JNF land to Arabs, it took control of the land in question and compensated the JNF with an equivalent amount of land in areas not designated for development (generally in the Galilee and the Negev ), thus ensuring that the total amount of land owned by the JNF remains the same. 232 234 This was a complicated and controversial mechanism, and in 2004 use of it was suspended. After Supreme Court discussions and a directive by the Attorney General instructing the ILA to lease JNF land to Arabs and Jews alike, in September 2007 the JNF suggested reinstating the landexchange mechanism. 232 235While the JNF and the ILA view an exchange of lands as a longterm solution, opponents say that such maneuvers privatize municipal lands and preserve a situation in which significant lands in Israel are not available for use by all of its citizens. 227 As of 2007, the High Court delayed ruling on JNF policy regarding leasing lands to nonJews, 227 and changes to the ILAJNF relationship were up in the air. 232 Adalah and other organizations furthermore express concern that proposed severance of the relation between the ILA and JNF, as suggested by Ami Ayalon , would leave the JNF free to retain the same proportion of lands for Jewish uses as it seeks to settle hundreds of thousands of Jews in areas with a tenuous Jewish demographic majority (in particular, 100,000 Jews in existing Galilee communities 114 and 250,000 Jews in new Negev communities via the Blueprint Negev 236 ).The Israel Land Administration , which administers 93 of the land in Israel (including the land owned by the Jewish National Fund ), refuses to lease land to nonJewish foreign nationals, who include Palestinian residents of Jerusalem who have identity cards but are not citizens of Israel. When ILA land is bought in Israel it is actually leased to the owner for a period of 49 years. According to article 19 of the ILA lease, foreign nationals are excluded from leasing ILA land, and in practice foreigners may just show that they qualify as Jewish under the Law of Return. 237Israeli law also discriminates between Jewish and Arab residents of Jerusalem regarding rights to recover property owned before the dislocations created by the 1948 ArabIsraeli War . 238 The 1950 Absentees Property Law said that any property within postwar Israel which was owned by an Arab who had left the country between 29 November 1947 and 19 May 1948, or by a Palestinian who had merely been abroad or in area of Palestine held by hostile forces up to 1 September 1948, lost all rights to that property. Palestinians who fled or were expelled from their homes by Jewish or Israeli forces, before and during the 1948 ArabIsraeli war, but remained within the borders of what would become Israel, that is, those currently known as Arab citizens of Israel, are deemed present absentees by the legislation. Present absentees are regarded as absent by the Israeli government because they left their homes, even if they did not intend to leave them for more than a few days, and even if they did so involuntarily. 239Following the 1967 SixDay War in which Israel occupied the West Bank , from where it annexed East Jerusalem , Israel then passed in 1970 the Law and Administration Arrangements Law allowing for Jews who had lost property in East Jerusalem and the West Bank during the 1948 war to reclaim it. 238 Palestinian residents of Jerusalem (absentees) in the same positions, and Arab Israelis (present absentees), who owned property in West Jerusalem or other areas within the state of Israel, and lost it as a result of the 1948 war, cannot recover their properties. Israeli legislation, therefore, allows Jews to recover their land, but not Arabs. 238In the early 2000s, several community settlements in the Negev and the Galilee were accused of barring Arab applicants from moving in. In 2010, the Knesset passed legislation that allowed admissions committees to function in smaller communities in the Galilee and the Negev, while explicitly forbidding committees to bar applicants based on the basis of race, religion, sex, ethnicity, disability, personal status, age, parenthood, sexual orientation, country of origin, political views, or political affiliation. 240 241 Critics, however, say the law gives the privately run admissions committees a wide latitude over public lands, and believe it will worsen discrimination against the Arab minority. 242Contesting allegations of discriminationWhile groups are not separated by official policy, Israel has a number of different sectors within the society that maintain their strong cultural, religious, ideological, andor ethnic identity. The Israeli foreign ministry maintains that in spite of the existing social cleavages and economic disparities, the political systems and the courts represent strict legal and civic equality. The Israeli foreign ministry describes the country as: Not a meltingpot society, but rather more of a mosaic made up of different population groups coexisting in the framework of a democratic state. 243According to Ishmael Khaldi , an Arab citizen of Israel and the nations first highranking Muslim in the Israeli foreign service, while Israeli society is far from perfect, minorities in Israel fare far better than any other country in the Middle East. He wrote: 244I am a proud Israeli along with many other nonJewish Israelis such as Druze, Bahai, Bedouin, Christians and Muslims, who live in one of the most culturally diversified societies and the only true democracy in the Middle East. Like America, Israeli society is far from perfect, but let us deal honestly. By any yardstick you choose educational opportunity, economic development, women and gays rights, freedom of speech and assembly, legislative representation Israels minorities fare far better than any other country in the Middle East.In 2009, the Israeli Arab Journalist Khaled Abu Toameh , writing for the Gatestone Institute , declared to a Muslim audience during the Durban Review Conference , that, while there are serious problems facing the Arab sector in Israel: Israel is a wonderful place to live and we are happy to be there. Israel is a free and open country. If I were given the choice, I would rather live in Israel as a second class citizen than as a first class citizen in Cairo, Gaza, Amman or Ramallah. 245Opposition to intermarriageIntermarriage is prohibited by the Jewish Halakha . 246 In the case of mixed ArabJewish marriages, emotions run especially high. A 2007 opinion survey found that more than half of Israeli Jews believed intermarriage was equivalent to national treason. A group of Jewish men in the Jerusalem neighborhood of Pisgat Zeev started patrolling the neighborhood to stop Jewish women from dating Arab men. The municipality of Petah Tikva has also announced an initiative to providing a telephone hotline for friends and family to report Jewish girls who date Arab men as well as psychologists to provide counselling. The city of Kiryat Gat launched a campaign in schools to warn Jewish girls against dating local Bedouin men. 247 248A 2015 survey found that 82 of Israeli Muslims and 88 of Israeli Christians would be uncomfortable with a child of theirs marrying a Jew. 97 of Israeli Jews would be uncomfortable if a child of theirs married a Muslim and 89 would be uncomfortable if a child of theirs married a Christian. 249KnessetThe Mossawa Center an advocacy organization for Arabs in Israel blames the Knesset of discrimination against Arabs, citing a 75 increase in discriminatory and racist bills submitted to the Knesset in the year 2009. According to the report, 11 bills deemed by the center to be discriminatory and racist were placed on the legislatures table in 2007, while 12 such bills were initiated in 2008. However, in 2009 a full 21 bills deemed discriminatory by the Mossawa Center were discussed in the Knesset. 250The reports categorizes as racist proposals such as giving academic scholarships to soldiers who served in combat units, and a bill to revoke government funding from organizations acting against the principles of the State. 250 The Coalition Against Racism and the Mossawa Center said that the proposed legislation seeks to delegitimize Israels Arab citizens by decreasing their civil rights. 251Economic statusInequality in the allocation of public funding for Jewish and Arab needs, and widespread employment discrimination, present significant economic hurdles for Arab citizens of Israel. 252 On the other hand, the Minorities at Risk (MAR) group states that despite obvious discrimination, Israeli Arabs are relatively much better off economically than neighboring Arabs. 253The predominant feature of the Arab communitys economic development after 1949 was its transformation from a predominantly peasant farming population to a proletarian industrial workforce. It has been suggested that the economic development of the community was marked by distinct stages. The first period, until 1967, was characterised by this process of proletarianisation. From 1967 on, economic development of the population was encouraged and an Arab bourgeoisie began to develop on the margin of the Jewish bourgeoisie. From the 1980s on, the community developed its economic and, in particular, industrial potential. 254In July 2006, the Government categorized all Arab communities in the country as class A development areas, thus making them eligible for tax benefits. This decision aims to encourage investments in the Arab sector. 255Raanan Dinur, directorgeneral of Prime Minister office, said in December 2006 that Israel had finalized plans to set up a NIS 160 million private equity fund to help develop the businesses of the countrys Arab community over the next decade. According to Dinur, companies owned by Arab citizens of Israel will be eligible to apply to the fund for as much as NIS 4 million (USD 952,000), enabling as many as 80 enterprises to receive money over the next 10 years. The Israeli government will, according to Dinur, solicit bids to operate the fund from various financial institutes and private firms, which must pledge to raise at least NIS 80 million (about USD 19 million) from private investors. 256In February 2007, The New York Times reported that 53 percent of the impoverished families in Israel were Arabs. 257 Since the majority of Arabs in Israel do not serve in the army, they are ineligible for many financial benefits such as scholarships and housing loans. 258Arab towns in Israel are reluctant to collect city taxes from their residents. 259 Sikkuy, a prominent ArabJewish NGO, found that Arabs as a group have the highest home ownership in Israel: 92.6 compared to 70 among Jews. 260While per capita income is lower in the Arab community, these figures do not take into account age (the average age in the Arab community is lower and young people earn less), the low percentage of women who join the workforce, and the large size of Arab families. 261In 2005, of the 40 towns in Israel with the highest unemployment rates, 36 were Arab towns. 104 According to the Central Bank of Israel statistics for 2003, salary averages for Arab workers were 29 lower than for Jewish workers. 104 Difficulties in procuring employment have been attributed to a comparatively low level of education visavis their Jewish counterparts, insufficient employment opportunities in the vicinity of their towns, discrimination by Jewish employers, and competition with foreign workers in fields, such as construction and agriculture. 104 Arab women have a higher unemployment rate in the work force relative to both religious and secular Jewish women. While among Arab men the employment was found to be on par with Jewish men, 17 of Arab women were found to be employed. This puts the Arab employment at 68 of the Israeli average. The Druze and Christian Arabs have higher employment than Muslims. 262Imad Telhami, founder and CEO of Babcom, a call center in the Tefen Industrial Park with 300 employees, is committed to developing career opportunities for Arab workers in Israel. Telhami, a Christian Arab, was a senior executive at the Delta Galil Industries textile plant before establishing Babcom. He hopes to employ 5,000 workers within five years: Israeli companies have been exporting thousands of jobs to India, Eastern Europe and other spots around the globe. I want to bring the jobs here. There are terrific engineers in the Arab sector, and the potential is huge. 263In March 2010, the government approved a 216 million, fiveyear development plan for the Israeli Arab sector with the goal of increasing job accessibility, particularly for women and academics. Under this program, some 15,000 new employees will be added to the work roster by 2014. 264By the 2010s, the IsraeliArab standard of living was found to be improving, with the number of middle class Arabs growing. In 2017, Haaretz , which termed Arabs as Israels new yuppies , reported that Arabs, especially women, were pursuing higher education in increasing numbers, and increasingly seeking whitecollar jobs. According to Professor Aziz Haidar of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem , in 2017 about 27 of Arabs were middle class (as opposed to 17 two decades before) and 3 were wealthy, and although most Arabs were still in lowerincome brackets, the Arab middle class is expanding dramatically. 265HealthThe Italian Nazareth HospitalThe most common healthrelated causes of death are heart disease and cancer. Roughly 14 were diagnosed with diabetes in 2000. 266 Around half of all Arab men smoke. 266 Life expectancy has increased 27 years since 1948. Further, due largely to improvements in health care, the Arab infant mortality rate dropped from 32 deaths per thousand births in 1970 to 8.6 per thousand in 2000. 266 However, the Bedouin infant mortality rate is still the highest in Israel, and one of the highest in the developed world.In 2003, the infant mortality rate among Arab citizens overall was 8.4 per thousand, more than twice as high as the rate 3.6 per thousand among the Jewish population. 267 In the 2002 budget, Israels health ministry allocated Arab communities less than 0.6 of its 277 mshekel (35m) budget (1.6 m shekels 200,000) to develop healthcare facilities. 222Despite the fact that Arab represent 20 of the total Israeli population, in 2015 they accounted 35 of all doctors in Israel, and according to a study by the Tel Aviv University Arabs account about 35 of all pharmacists in Israel. 268 The Arabic local council Arraba has one of the highest numbers of doctors per capita in the world. 268EducationSign in front of the Galil school , a joint Arab Jewish primary school in IsraelMar Elias , a kindergarten, elementary, junior high, and high school, and college in Ibillin , an Arab village in northern Israel.The Israeli government regulates and finances most of the schools operating in the country, including the majority of those run by private organizations. The national school system has two major branches a Hebrewspeaking branch and an Arabicspeaking branch. The curricula for the two systems are almost identical in mathematics, sciences, and English. It is different in humanities (history, literature, etc.). While Hebrew is taught as a second language in Arab schools since the third grade and obligatory for Arabicspeaking schools matriculation exams, only basic knowledge of Arabic is taught in Hebrewspeaking schools, usually from the 7th to the 9th grade. Arabic is not obligatory for Hebrew speaking schools matriculation exams. The schooling language split operates from preschool, up to the end of high school. At the university level, they merge into a single system, which operates mostly in Hebrew and in English. 269In 2001, Human Rights Watch described governmentrun Arab schools as a world apart from governmentrun Jewish schools. 270 The report found striking differences in virtually every aspect of the education system. 271 272In 2005, the FollowUp Committee for Arab Education said that the Israeli government spent an average of 192 a year on Arab students compared to 1,100 for Jewish students. The dropout rate for Arabs was twice as high as for Jews (12 percent versus 6 percent). There was a 5,000classroom shortage in the Arab sector. 273According to the 2004 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for Israel and the occupied territories, Israeli Arabs were underrepresented in the student bodies and faculties of most universities and in higher professional and business ranks. Well educated Arabs often were unable to find jobs commensurate with their level of education. According to Sikkuy, Arab citizens held approximately 60 to 70 of the countrys 5,000 university faculty positions. 219Arab educators have long voiced concerns over institutionalized budgetary discrimination. An August 2009 study published by the Hebrew University s School of Education claimed that Israels Education Ministry discriminated against Arabs in its allocations of special assistance for students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the average perstudent allocation at Arab junior high schools was onefifth the average at Jewish ones. This was due to the allocation method: funds were first divided between Arab and Jewish school systems according to the number of students in each, and then allocated to needy students however, due to the large proportion of such students in the Arab sector, they receive less funds, per student, than Jewish students. The Ministry of Education said it was discontinuing this method in favor of a uniform index. 274 Ministry data on the percentage of high school students who passed their matriculation exams showed that Arab towns were ranked lowest except for Fureidis , which had the third highest pass rate (75.86 percent) in Israel. 274Higher educationThe percentage of Arab students at the Technion Israel Institute of Technology is around 20 275 276Nearly half of Arab students who passed their matriculation exams failed to win a place in higher education because they performed poorly in the Psychometric Entrance Test , compared to 20 of Jewish applicants. Khaled Arar, a professor at Beit Berl College , believes the psychometric test is culturally biased: The gap in psychometric scores between Jewish and Arab students has remained steady at more than 100 points out of a total of 800 since 1982. That alone should have raised suspicions. 277However, a 1986 research found negligible differences in construct or predictive test validity across varying cultural groups and the findings appeared to be more consistent with the psychometric than with the cultural bias position. 278Military conscriptionWikimedia Commons has media related to IDF Desert Reconnaissance battalion .Bedouin IDF soldiers of Rumat alHeib ( ) during a military parade in TelAviv in June 1949Arab citizens are not required to serve in the Israeli military, and, outside the Bedouin community, very few (around 120 a year) volunteer. 60 Until 2000, each year between 510 of the Bedouin population of draft age volunteered for the Israeli army , and Bedouin were well known for their unique status as volunteers. The legendary Israeli soldier, Amos Yarkoni , first commander of the Shaked Reconnaissance Battalion in the Givati Brigade , was a Bedouin (born Abd elMajid Hidr). Bedouin soldiers dominate the elite human tracking units that guard Israels northern and southern border. 279 Lieutenant Colonel Magdi Mazarib, a Bedouin, who is the Israeli armys highestranking tracking commander, told the AFP that he believes that the state of Bedouin in Israel is better, as far as the respect we get, our progress, education. 279 Today the number of Bedouin in the army may be less than 1. 280 A 2003 report stated that willingness among Bedouin to serve in the army had drastically dropped in recent years, as the Israeli government has failed to fulfill promises of equal service provision to Bedouin citizens. 281 However, a 2009 article in Haaretz stated that volunteer recruitment for a crack elite Bedouin army unit rose threefold. 282IDF figures indicate that, in 2002 and 2003, Christians represented 0.1 percent of all recruits. In 2004, the number of recruits had doubled. Altogether, in 2003, the percentage of Christians serving had grown by 16 percent over the year 2000. The IDF does not publish figures on the exact number of recruits by religious denomination, and it is estimated that merely a few dozen Christians currently serve in the IDF. 68The Druze are required to serve in the IDF in accordance with an agreement between their local religious leaders and the Israeli government in 1956. Opposition to the decision among the Druze populace was evident immediately, but was unsuccessful in reversing the decision. 283 It is estimated that 85 of Druze men in Israel serve in the army, 284 many of them becoming officers 285 and some rising to general officer rank. 286 In recent years, a growing minority from within the Druze community have denounced this mandatory enrollment, and refused to serve. 287 288 In 2001, Said Nafa , who identifies as a Palestinian Druze and serves as the head of the Balad partys national council, founded the Pact of Free Druze, an organization that aims to stop the conscription of the Druze and claims the community is an inalienable part of the Arabs in Israel and the Palestinian nation at large. 289National ServiceRather than perform army service, Israeli Arab youths have the option to volunteer to national service and receive benefits similar to those received by discharged soldiers. The volunteers are generally allocated to Arab populations, where they assist with social and community matters. As of 2010 update there are 1,473 Arabs volunteering for national service. According to sources in the national service administration, Arab leaders are counseling youths to refrain from performing services to the state. According to a National Service official: For years the Arab leadership has demanded, justifiably, benefits for Arab youths similar to those received by discharged soldiers. Now, when this opportunity is available, it is precisely these leaders who reject the states call to come and do the service, and receive these benefits. 290Intercommunal relationsSurveys and pollsIn a 2004 survey by Sammy Smooha of the University of Haifa JewishArab Center , 84.9 of Israeli Arabs stated that Israel has a right to exist as an independent state, and 70 that it has a right to exist as a democratic, Jewish state. 291 292 A Truman Institute survey from 2005 found that 63 of the Arab citizens accepted the principle that Israel is the state of the Jewish people. 104 293A 2006 poll by the Arab advocacy group the Center Against Racism showed negative attitudes towards Arabs. The poll found that 63 of Jews believe Arabs are a security threat 68 would refuse to live in the same building as an Arab 34 believe that Arab culture is inferior to Israeli culture. Support for segregation between Jewish and Arab citizens was higher among Jews of Middle Eastern origin. 294Israeli Patriotism among Israeli Arabs, 2006Very Patriotic
The land comprising the UAE was under the Umayyads:Expansion under Muhammad, 622632Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632661Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661750Antiquity edit The land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an even older habitation from 130,000 years ago. 18 There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wideranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains , which commenced around 3000 BCE. 19 In ancient times, Al Hasa (todays Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman (todays UAE and Oman ). From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani (or Yamani) and Qudaah tribal groups from southwest Arabia towards central Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast. In 637, Julfar (in the area of todays Ras alKhaimah ) was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire . 20 The area of the Al AinBuraimi Oasis was known as Tuam and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior. 21The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD. 22 It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD. 23Islam edit The spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad , to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah . This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina , converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sassanids, who dominated the Northern coasts at the time. 24 Following the death of Prophet Muhammad, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory ( the Ridda Wars ) with the bloody battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost. 25 This assured the integrity of the Caliphate and the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the newly emerging Rashidun Caliphate .Ottoman and Portuguese era edit See also: Piracy in the Persian GulfA map of the area in 1914The harsh desert environment led to the emergence of the versatile tribesman, nomadic groups who subsisted due to a variety of economic activities, including animal husbandry, agriculture and hunting. The seasonal movements of these groups led to not only frequent clashes between groups but also the establishment of seasonal and semiseasonal settlements and centres. These formed tribal groupings whose names are still carried by modern Emiratis, including the Bani Yas and Al Bu Falah of Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Liwa and the Al Bahrain coast, the Dhawahir, Awamir , Al Ali and Manasir of the interior, the Sharqiyin of the east coast and the Qawasim to the North. 26By the 16th century, ports in the Persian Gulf and part of the population that today form the coastal Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, came under the direct influence of the Ottoman Empire . 27 28 At the same time, the Portuguese, English and Dutch colonial forces also appeared in the Persian Gulf region, with the entire northern coast remaining under Persian rule throughout. By the 17th century, the Bani Yas confederation was the dominant force in most of the area now known as Abu Dhabi. 29 30 31 The Portuguese maintained an influence over the coastal settlements, building forts in the wake of the bloody 16thcentury conquests of coastal communities by Albuquerque and the Portuguese commanders who followed him particularly on the east coast at Muscat , Sohar and Khor Fakkan . 32The southern coast of the Persian Gulf was known to the British as the Pirate Coast , 33 34 as boats of the Al Qawasim (Al Qasimi) federation based in the area harassed Britishflagged shipping from the 17th century into the 19th. 35 British expeditions to protect the Indian trade from raiders at Ras alKhaimah led to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the coast in 1809 and subsequently 1819. The following year, Britain and a number of local rulers signed a treaty to combat piracy along the Persian Gulf coast, giving rise to the term Trucial States , which came to define the status of the coastal emirates. Further treaties were signed in 1843 and 1853.Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, namely France and Russia, the British and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the British with other Persian Gulf principalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the British and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the British without their consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack. This treaty, the Exclusive Agreement, was signed by the Rulers of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain between 6 and 8 March 1892. It was subsequently ratified by the Viceroy of India and the British Government in London. 36 British maritime policing meant that pearling fleets could operate in relative security. However, the British prohibition of the slave trade meant an important source of income was lost to some sheikhs and merchants. 37 The charge of piracy is disputed by modern Emirati historians, including the current Ruler of Sharjah in his 1986 book The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf. 38In 1869, the Qubaisat tribe settled at Khawr al Udayd and tried to enlist the support of the Ottomans, whose flag was occasionally seen flying there. Khawr al Udayd was claimed by Abu Dhabi at that time, a claim supported by the British. In 1906, the British Political Resident, Percy Cox , confirmed in writing to the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan (Zayed the Great) that Khawr al Udayd belonged to his sheikhdom. 39British era and discovery of oil edit During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the pearling industry thrived, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulf. The First World War had a severe impact on the industry, but it was the economic depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, coupled with the invention of the cultured pearl , that wiped out the trade. The remnants of the trade eventually faded away shortly after the Second World War , when the newly independent Government of India imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the Arab states of the Persian Gulf . The decline of pearling resulted in extreme economic hardship in the Trucial States. 40Dubai in 1950 the area in this photo shows Bur Dubai in the foreground (centered on AlFahidi Fort) Deira in middleright on the other side of the creek and Al Shindagha (left) and Al Ras (right) in the background across the creek again from DeiraThe British set up a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates. The seven sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. In 1952, they formed the Trucial States Council, 41 and appointed Adi Bitar , Dubais Sheikh Rashid s legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed. 42 The tribal nature of society and the lack of definition of borders between emirates frequently led to disputes, settled either through mediation or, more rarely, force. The Trucial Oman Scouts was a small military force used by the British to keep the peace.In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabi in the latters dispute with Oman over the Buraimi Oasis , another territory to the south. 43 A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu DhabiSaudi border dispute , but this has not been ratified. 44 The UAEs border with Oman was ratified in 2008. 45In 1922, the British government secured undertakings from the trucial rulers not to sign concessions with foreign companies. Aware of the potential for the development of natural resources such as oil, following finds in Persia (from 1908) and Mesopotamia (from 1927), a Britishled oil company, the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), showed an interest in the region. The AngloPersian Oil Company (APOC, later to become British Petroleum, or BP) had a 23.75 share in IPC. From 1935, onshore concessions to explore for oil were agreed with local rulers, with APOC signing the first one on behalf of Petroleum Concessions Ltd (PCL), an associate company of IPC. 46 APOC was prevented from developing the region alone because of the restrictions of the Red Line Agreement , which required it to operate through IPC. A number of options between PCL and the trucial rulers were signed, providing useful revenue for communities experiencing poverty following the collapse of the pearl trade. However, the wealth of oil which the rulers could see from the revenues accruing to surrounding countries such as Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia remained elusive. The first bore holes in Abu Dhabi were drilled by IPCs operating company, Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd (PDTC) at Ras Sadr in 1950, with a 13,000footdeep (4,000metre) bore hole taking a year to drill and turning out dry, at the tremendous cost at the time of 1 million.In 1953, a subsidiary of BP, DArcy Exploration Ltd, obtained an offshore concession from the ruler of Abu Dhabi. BP joined with Compagnie Franaise des Ptroles (later Total ) to form operating companies, Abu Dhabi Marine Areas Ltd (ADMA) and Dubai Marine Areas Ltd (DUMA). A number of undersea oil surveys were carried out, including one led by the famous marine explorer Jacques Cousteau . 47 48 In 1958, a floating platform rig was towed from Hamburg, Germany, and positioned over the Umm Shaif pearl bed, in Abu Dhabi waters, where drilling began. In March, it struck oil in the Upper Thamama, a rock formation that would provide many valuable oil finds. This was the first commercial discovery of the Trucial Coast, leading to the first exports of oil in 1962. ADMA made further offshore discoveries at Zakum and elsewhere, and other companies made commercial finds such as the Fateh oilfield off Dubai and the Mubarak field off Sharjah (shared with Iran). 49PDTC had continued its onshore exploration activities, drilling five more bore holes that were also dry, but on 27 October 1960, the company discovered oil in commercial quantities at the Murban No. 3 well on the coast near Tarif. 50 In 1962, PDTC became the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company. As oil revenues increased, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan , undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads. When Dubais oil exports commenced in 1969, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum , the ruler of Dubai, was able to invest the revenues from the limited reserves found to spark the diversification drive that would create the modern global city of Dubai. 51Independence edit Historic photo depicting the first hoisting of the United Arab Emirates flag by the rulers of the emirates at The Union House, Dubai on 2nd of December 1971.Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan is the first President of the United Arab Emirates and is recognized as the father of the nation.By 1966, it had become clear the British government could no longer afford to administer and protect what is now the United Arab Emirates. British MPs debated the preparedness of the Royal Navy to defend the sheikhdoms. Secretary of State for Defence Denis Healey reported that the British Armed Forces were seriously overstretched and in some respects dangerously underequipped to defend the sheikhdoms. On 24 January 1968, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced the governments decision, reaffirmed in March 1971 by Prime Minister Edward Heath to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms, that had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. Days after the announcement, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan , fearing vulnerability, tried to persuade the British to honour the protection treaties by offering to pay the full costs of keeping the British Armed Forces in the Emirates. The British Labour government rejected the offer. 52 After Labour MP Goronwy Roberts informed Sheikh Zayed of the news of British withdrawal, the nine Persian Gulf sheikhdoms attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year. 53Fears of vulnerability were realized the day before independence. An Iranian destroyer group broke formation from an exercise in the lower Gulf, sailing to the Tunb islands . The islands were taken by force, civilians and Arab defenders alike allowed to flee. A British warship stood idle during the course of the invasion. 54 A destroyer group approached the island Abu Musa as well. But there, Sheikh Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi had already negotiated with the Iranian Shah, and the island was quickly leased to Iran for 3 million a year. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia laid claim to swathes of Abu Dhabi. 55Bahrain became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. When the BritishTrucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on 1 December 1971, they became fully independent. 56 The rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to form a union between their two emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them the opportunity to join. It was also agreed between the two that the constitution be written by 2 December 1971. 57 On that date, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace, four other emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Bahrain and Qatar declined their invitations to join the union. Ras alKhaimah joined later, in early 1972. 58 59 In February 1972, the Federal National Council (FNC) was created it was a 40member consultative body appointed by the seven rulers. The UAE joined the Arab League in 1971. It was a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council in May 1981, with Abu Dhabi hosting the first summit. UAE forces joined the allies against Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait in 1990.View of DubaiSharjah city skylineThe UAE supported military operations from the US and other coalition nations engaged in the war against the Taliban in Afghanistan (2001) and Saddam Hussein in Iraq (2003) as well as operations supporting the Global War on Terror for the Horn of Africa at Al Dhafra Air Base located outside of Abu Dhabi. The air base also supported Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch . The country had already signed a military defense agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995. 60 61 In January 2008, France and the UAE signed a deal allowing France to set up a permanent military base in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. 62 The UAE joined international military operations in Libya in March 2011.On 2 November 2004, the UAEs first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan , died. His eldest son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan , succeeded as Emir of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the constitution, the UAEs Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. 63 In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum , the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and the crown prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum assumed both roles.The first ever national elections were held in the UAE on 16 December 2006. A small number of handpicked voters chose half of the members of the Federal National Council, an advisory body. UAE has largely escaped the Arab Spring , which other countries have had however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and tortured because they sought reforms. Furthermore, some people have had their nationality revoked. 64 Mindful of the protests in nearby Bahrain, in November 2012 the UAE outlawed online mockery of its own government or attempts to organise public protests through social media. 13This section needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(November 2016)