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Arabic sex 18 years old

Arabic sex 18 years old

Arabic sex 18 years old

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10 External linksEarly lifeAisha was born in late 613 or early 614. 15 16 She was the daughter of Umm Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca , two of Muhammads most trusted companions . 17 Aisha was the third and youngest wife of Muhammad. 17No sources offer much more information about Aishas childhood years. 18 19Marriage to MuhammadThe idea to match Aisha with Muhammad was suggested by Khawlah bint Hakim . 20 21 After this, the previous agreement regarding the marriage of Aisha with Jubayr ibn Mutim was put aside by common consent. Abu Bakr was uncertain at first as to the propriety or even legality of marrying his daughter to his brother. 21 British historian William Montgomery Watt suggests that Muhammad hoped to strengthen his ties with Abu Bakr 10 the strengthening of ties commonly served as a basis for marriage in Arabian culture. 22Age at marriageSee also: Criticism of Muhammad (Aisha) , Islam and children Marriage , and Child marriageAishas age at the time she was married to Muhammad has been of interest since the earliest days of Islam, and references to her age by early historians are frequent. 11 According to Sunni scriptural Hadith sources, Aisha was six or seven years old when she was married to Muhammad with the marriage not being consummated until she had reached puberty at the age of nine or ten years old. 10 11 12 13 14 23 24 25 For example, Sahih alBukhari states that Aisha narrated that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death). Sahih alBukhari , 7:62:64Some traditional sources disagree. Ibn Hisham wrote in his biography of Muhammad that she may have been ten years old at the consummation. 11 Ibn Khallikan , as well as Ibn Sad alBaghdadi citing Hisham ibn Urwah , record that she was nine years old at marriage, and twelve at consummation. 26 Modern author and journalist Sadakat Kadri points out that the recording of Aishas age by Ibn Sad and Bukhari (though the hadith was Sahih) came a couple of centuries after the Prophets death. 27 Child marriage was not uncommon in many places at the time, Arabia included. It often served political purposes, and Aishas marriage to Muhammad would have had a political connotation. 26Muslim authors who calculate Aishas age based on the more detailed information available about her sister Asma estimate that she was over thirteen and perhaps between seventeen and nineteen at the time of her marriage. 28 Muhammad Niknam Arabshahi, an Iranian Islamic scholar and historian, has considered six different approaches clarification needed to determining Aishas age and concluded that she was engaged in her late teens. 29 Using the age of Fatimah as a reference point, the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement scholar Muhammad Ali has estimated that Aisha was over ten years old at the time of marriage and over fifteen at the time of its consummation. 30American historian Denise Spellberg has reviewed Islamic literature on Aishas virginity, age at marriage and age when the marriage was consummated and speculates that Aishas youth might have been exaggerated to exclude any doubt about her virginity. 11 Spellberg states, Aishas age is a major preoccupation in Ibn Sad where her marriage varies between six and seven nine seems constant as her age at the marriages consummation. She notes one exception in Ibn Hishams biography of the Prophet, which suggests that consummation may have occurred when Aisha was age 10, summarizing her review with the note that these specific references to the brides age reinforce Aishas premenarcheal status and, implicitly, her virginity. They also suggest the variability of Aishas age in the historical record. 11 Early Muslims regarded Aishas youth as demonstrating her virginity and therefore her suitability as a bride of Muhammad. This issue of her virginity was of great importance to those who supported Aishas position in the debate of the succession to Muhammad . These supporters considered that as Muhammads only virgin wife, Aisha was divinely intended for him, and therefore the most credible regarding the debate. 31Personal lifeRelationship with MuhammadMuhammad and Aisha freeing the daughter of a tribal chiefIn many Muslim traditions , Aisha is described as Muhammads most beloved or favored wife after his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid , who died before the migration to Medina took place. 32 33 34 35 36 There are several hadiths, or stories or sayings of Muhammad, that support this belief. One relates that when a companion asked Muhammad, who is the person you love most in the world? he responded, Aisha. 37 Others relate that Muhammad built Aishas apartment so that her door opened directly into the mosque, 38 39 and that she was the only woman with whom Muhammad received revelations. 40 41 They bathed in the same water and he prayed while she lay stretched out in front of him. 42There are also various traditions that reveal the mutual affection between Muhammad and Aisha. He would often just sit and watch her and her friends play with dolls, and on occasion he would even join them. 43 44 45 Additionally, they were close enough that each was able to discern the mood of the other, as many stories relate. 46 47 It is also important to note that there exists evidence that Muhammad did not view himself as entirely superior to Aisha, at least not enough to prevent Aisha from speaking her mind, even at the risk of angering Muhammad. On one such instance, Muhammads announcement of a revelation permitting him to enter into marriages disallowed to other men drew from her Aisha the retort, It seems to me your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire! 48 Furthermore, Muhammad and Aisha had a strong intellectual relationship. 49 Muhammad valued her keen memory and intelligence and so instructed his companions to draw some of their religious practices from her. 50 51Accusation of adulteryThe story of accusation of adultery levied against Aisha can be traced to sura (chapter) AnNur of the Quran . As the story goes, Aisha left her howdah in order to search for a missing necklace. Her slaves mounted the howdah and prepared it for travel without noticing any difference in weight without Aishas presence. Hence the caravan accidentally departed without her. She remained at the camp until the next morning, when Safwan ibn alMuattal , a nomad and member of Muhammads army, found her and brought her back to Muhammad at the armys next camp. Rumours that Aisha and Safwan had committed adultery were spread, particularly by AbdAllah ibn Ubayy , Hassan ibn Thabit , Mistah ibn Uthatha and Hammanah bint Jahsh (sister of Zaynab bint Jahsh , another of Muhammads wives). Usama ibn Zayd , son of Zayd ibn Harithah , defended Aishas reputation while Ali ibn Abi Talib advised Women are plentiful, and you can easily change one for another. Muhammad came to speak directly with Aisha about the rumours. He was still sitting in her house when he announced that he had received a revelation from God confirming Aishas innocence. Surah 24 details the Islamic laws and punishment regarding adultery and slander. Aishas accusers were subjected to punishments of 80 lashes. 52Story of the honeyAfter the daily Asr prayer, Muhammad would visit each of his wives apartments to inquire about their wellbeing. Muhammad was just in the amount of time he spent with them and attention he gave to them. 53 Once, Muhammads fifth wife, Zaynab bint Jahsh, received some honey from a relative which Muhammad took a particular liking to. As a result, every time Zaynab offered some of this honey to him he would spend a longer time in her apartment. This did not sit well with Aisha and Hafsa bint Umar .Hafsa and I decided that when the Prophet entered upon either of us, she would say, I smell in you the bad smell of Maghafir (a bad smelling raisin). Have you eaten Maghafir? When he entered upon one of us, she said that to him. He replied (to her), No, but I have drunk honey in the house of Zainab bint Jahsh, and I will never drink it again....But I have drunk honey. Hisham said: It also meant his saying, I will not drink anymore, and I have taken an oath, so do not inform anybody of thatMuhammad alBukhari , Sahih alBukhari 54Soon after this event, Muhammad reported that he had received a revelation in which he was told that he could eat anything permitted by God. Some Sunni commentators on the Quran sometimes give this story as the occasion of revelation for AtTahrim , which opens with the following verses:O Prophet! Why holdest thou to be forbidden that which Allah has made lawful to thee? Thou seekest to please thy consorts. But Allah is OftForgiving, Most Merciful.Allah has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your oaths (in some cases): and Allah is your Protector, and He is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom.Quran, surah 66 (AtTahrim), ayat 12 55Word spread to the small Muslim community that Muhammads wives were speaking sharply to him and conspiring against him. Muhammad, saddened and upset, separated from his wives for a month. Umar, Hafsas father, scolded his daughter and also spoke to Muhammad of the matter. By the end of this time, his wives were humbled they agreed to speak correct and courteous words 56 and to focus on the afterlife . 57Death of MuhammadAisha remained Muhammads favorite wife throughout his life. When he became ill and suspected that he was probably going to die, he began to ask his wives whose apartment he was to stay in next. They eventually figured out that he was trying to determine when he was due with Aisha, and they then allowed him to retire there. He remained in Aishas apartment until his death, and his last breath was taken as he lay in the arms of Aisha, his most beloved wife. 58 59 60 61 62Political careerAfter Muhammads death, which ended Aisha and Muhammads 14yearlong marriage, Aisha lived fifty more years in and around Medina. Much of her time was spent learning and acquiring knowledge of the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad. Aisha was one of three wives (the other two being Hafsa bint Umar and Umm Salama ) who memorized the Quran. Like Hafsa, Aisha had her own script of the Quran written after Muhammads death. 63 During Aishas life many prominent customs of Islam, such as veiling and seclusion of women, began.Aishas importance to revitalizing the Arab tradition and leadership among the Arab women highlights her magnitude within Islam. 64 Aisha became involved in the politics of early Islam and the first three caliphate reigns: Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman. During a time in Islam when women were not expected, or wanted, to contribute outside the household, Aisha delivered public speeches, became directly involved in war and even battles, and helped both men and women to understand the practices of Muhammad. 32 additional citation(s) needed Role during caliphateRole during first and second caliphatesAfter Muhammads death in 632, Abu Bakr was appointed as the first caliph. This matter of succession to Muhammad is extremely controversial to the Shia who believe that Ali had been appointed by Muhammad to lead while Sunni maintain that the public elected Abu Bakr. 65 Abu Bakr had two advantages in achieving his new role: his long personal friendship with Muhammad and his role as fatherinlaw. As caliph, Abu Bakr was the first to set guidelines for the new position of authority. 66Aisha garnered more special privilege in the Islamic community for being known as both a wife of Muhammad and the daughter of the first caliph. Being the daughter of Abu Bakr tied Aisha to honorable titles earned from her fathers strong dedication to Islam. For example, she was given the title of alsiddiqa bint alsiddiq, meaning the truthful woman, daughter of the truthful man, 11 a reference to Abu Bakrs support of the Isra and Miraj . 67In 634 Abu Bakr fell sick and was unable to recover. Prior to his death, he appointed Umar, one of his chief advisers, as the second caliph 11 Throughout Umars time in power Aisha continued to play the role of a consultant in political matters. 11Role during the third caliphateAfter Umar died, Uthmn was chosen to be the third caliph. He wanted to promote the interests of the Umayyads . Aisha had little involvement with Uthmn for the first couple years, but eventually she found a way into the politics of his reign. She eventually grew to despise Uthmn, and many are unsure of what specifically triggered her eventual opposition towards him. A prominent opposition that arose towards him was when Uthmn mistreated Ammar ibn Yasir (companion of Muhammad) by beating him. Aisha became enraged and spoke out publicly, saying, How soon indeed you have forgotten the practice (sunnah) of your prophet and these, his hairs, a shirt, and sandal have not yet perished!. 68As time continued issues of antipathy towards Uthmn continued to arise. Another instance of opposition arose when the people came to Aisha, after Uthmn ignored the rightful punishment for Walid idn Uqbah (Uthmns brother). Aisha and Uthmn argued with each other, Uthmn eventually made a comment on why Aisha had come and how she was ordered to stay at home. 69 Arising from this comment, was the question of whether Aisha, and for that matter women, still had the ability to be involved in public affairs. The Muslim community became split: some sided with Uthmn, but others demanded to know who indeed had better right than Aisha in such matters. 69The caliphate took a turn for the worse when Egypt was governed by Abdullah ibn Saad . Abbott reports that Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa of Egypt, an opponent of Uthmn, forged letters in the Mothers of the Believers names to the conspirators against Uthmn. The people cut off Uthmns water and food supply. When Aisha realized the behavior of the crowd, Abbott notes, Aisha could not believe the crowd would offer such indignities to a widow of Mohammad. 70 This refers to when Safiyya bint Huyayy (one of Muhammads wives) tried to help Uthmn and was taken by the crowd. Malik alAshtar then approached her about killing Uthmn and the letter, and she claimed she would never want to command the shedding of the blood of the Muslims and the killing of their Imm 70 she also claimed she did not write the letters. 71 The city continued to oppose Uthmn, but as for Aisha, her journey to Mecca was approaching. With the journey to Mecca approaching at this time, she wanted to rid herself of the situation. Uthmn heard of her not wanting to hurt him, and he asked her to stay because of her influence on the people, but this did not persuade Aisha, and she continued on her journey. 6First FitnaDomains of Rashidun Caliphate under four caliphs . The divided phase relates to the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali during the First Fitna .Strongholds of the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali during the First FitnaRegion under the control of Amr ibn alAs during the First FitnaIn 655, Uthmans house was put under siege by about 1000 rebels. Eventually the rebels broke into the house and murdered Uthman, provoking the First Fitna . 72 After killing Uthman, the rebels asked Ali to be the new caliph, although Ali was not involved in the murder of Uthman according to many reports. 73 74 Ali reportedly initially refused the caliphate , agreeing to rule only after his followers persisted.When Ali could not execute those merely accused of Uthmans murder, Aisha delivered a fiery speech against him for not avenging the death of Uthman. The first to respond to Aisha was Abdullah ibn Aamar alHadhrami, the governor of Mecca during the reign of Uthman, and prominent members of the Banu Umayya . With the funds from the Yemeni Treasury Aisha set out on a campaign against the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali. citation needed Aisha, along with an army including Zubayr ibn alAwam and Talha ibn UbaydAllah , confronted Alis army, demanding the prosecution of Uthmans killers who had mingled with his army outside the city of Basra . When her forces captured Basra she ordered the execution of 600 Muslims and 40 others, including Hakim ibn Jabala, who were put to death in the Grand Mosque of Basra. 75 76 77 Aishas forces are also known to have tortured and imprisoned Othman ibn Hanif the governor of Basra appointed by Ali. 78Aisha battling the fourth caliph Ali in the Battle of the CamelAli rallied supporters and fought Aishas forces near Basra in 656. The battle is known as the Battle of the Camel , after the fact that Aisha directed her forces from a howdah on the back of a large camel. Aishas forces were defeated and an estimated 10,000 Muslims were killed in the battle, 79 considered the first engagement where Muslims fought Muslims. 80After 110 days of conflict the Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib met Aisha with reconciliation. He sent her back to Medina under military escort headed by her brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr , one of Alis commanders. She subsequently retired to Medina with no more interference with the affairs of state. She was also awarded a pension by Ali. 81Although she retired to Medina, her forsaken efforts against the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali did not end the First Fitna. 82Contributions to Islam and influenceAfter 25 years of a monogamous relationship with his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Muhammad participated in nine years of polygyny , marrying at least nine further wives. Muhammads subsequent marriages were depicted purely as political matches rather than unions of sexual indulgence. In particular, Muhammads unions with Aisha and Hafsa bint Umar associated him with two of the most significant leaders of the early Muslim community, Aishas and Hafsas fathers, Abu Bakr and Umar ibn alKhattb, respectively. 83Aishas marriage has given her significance among many within Islamic culture, becoming known as the most learned woman of her time. Being Muhammads favorite wife, Aisha occupied an important position in his life. 64 When Muhammad married Aisha in her youth, she was accessible ...to the values needed to lead and influence the sisterhood of Muslim women. 84 After the death of Muhammad, Aisha was discovered to be a renowned source of hadiths, due to her qualities of intelligence and memory. 64 Aisha conveyed ideas expressing Muhammads practice (sunnah). She expressed herself as a role model to women, which can also be seen within some traditions attributed to her. The traditions regarding Aisha habitually opposed ideas unfavorable to women in efforts to elicit social change. 85According to Reza Aslan : 86The socalled Muslim womens movement is predicated on the idea that Muslim men, not Islam, have been responsible for the suppression of womens rights. For this reason, Muslim feminists throughout the world are advocating a return to the society Muhammad originally envisioned for his followers. Despite differences in culture, nationalities, and beliefs, these women believe that the lesson to be learned from Muhammad in Medina is that Islam is above all an egalitarian religion. Their Medina is a society in which Muhammad designated women like Umm Waraqa as spiritual guides for the Ummah in which the Prophet himself was sometimes publicly rebuked by his wives in which women prayed and fought alongside the men in which women like Aisha and Umm Salamah acted not only as religious but also as politicaland on at least one occasion militaryleaders and in which the call to gather for prayer, bellowed from the rooftop of Muhammads house, brought men and women together to kneel side by side and be blessed as a single undivided community.Not only was Aisha supportive of Muhammad, but she contributed scholarly intellect to the development of Islam. 84 She was given the title alSiddiqah, meaning the one who affirms the truth. Aisha was known for her ...expertise in the Quran, shares of inheritance, lawful and unlawful matters, poetry , Arabic literature , Arab history, genealogy, and general medicine. 84 Her intellectual contributions regarding the verbal texts of Islam were in time transcribed into written form, becoming the official history of Islam. 87 After the death of Muhammad, Aisha was regarded as the most reliable source in the teachings of hadith. 84 Aishas authentication of Muhammads ways of prayer and his recitation of the Quran allowed for development of knowledge of his sunnah of praying and reading verses of the Quran. 32During Aishas entire life she was a strong advocate for the education of Islamic women, especially in law and the teachings of Islam. She was known for establishing the first madrasa for women in her home. 84 additional citation(s) needed Attending Aishas classes were various family relatives and orphaned children. Men also attended Aishas classes, with a simple curtain separating the male and female students. 84 additional citation(s) needed Political influenceSome who? say that Aishas political influence helped promote her father, Abu Bakr, to the caliphate after Muhammads death. 3After the defeat at the Battle of the Camel, Aisha retreated to Medina and became a teacher. 3 Upon her arrival in Medina, Aisha retired from her public role in politics. Her discontinuation of public politics, however, did not stop her political influence completely. Privately, Aisha continued influencing those intertwined in the Islamic political sphere. Amongst the Islamic community, she was known as an intelligent woman who debated law with male companions. 88 Aisha was also considered to be the embodiment of proper rituals while partaking in the pilgrimage to Mecca , a journey she made with several groups of women. For the last two years of her life, Aisha spent much of her time telling the stories of Muhammad, hoping to correct false passages that had become influential in formulating Islamic law. Due to this, Aishas political influence continues to impact those in Islam. 3DeathAisha died at her home in Medina on 17 Ramadan 58 AH (16 July 678). She was 67 years old. 1 Some such as Sibt ibn alJawzi , 89 Hakim Sanai , 90 and Khwaja Mehboob Qasim Chishti Muhsarafee Qadiri 91 say that she was murdered by Muawiyah . Muhammads companion Abu Hurairah led her funeral prayer after the tahajjud (night) prayer, and she was buried at Jannat alBaqi . 92ViewsSunni view of AishaSunnis believe she was Muhammads favorite wife. They consider her (among other wives) to be Umm alMuminin and among the members of the Ahl alBayt , or Muhammads family. According to Sunni hadith reports, Muhammad saw Aisha in two dreams 93 94 in which he was shown that he would marry her. 95 96Shia view of AishaThe Shia view Aisha negatively. They accuse her of hating Ali and defying him during his caliphate in the Battle of the Camel, when she fought men from Alis army in Basra. 97See also

Main article: Old ArabicArabian LanguagesArabia boasted a wide variety of Semitic languages in antiquity. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family (e.g. Southern Thamudic) were spoken. It is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages (nonCentral Semitic languages) were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time. To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz , Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages. In Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested. In eastern Arabia, inscriptions in a script derived from ASA attest to a language known as Hasaitic . Finally, on the northwestern frontier of Arabia, various languages known to scholars as Thamudic B, Thamudic D, Safaitic , and Hismaic are attested. The last two share important isoglosses with later forms of Arabic, leading scholars to theorize that Safaitic and Hismaic are in fact early forms of Arabic and that they should be considered Old Arabic . 11Beginning in the 1st century CE, fragments of Northern Old Arabic are attested in the Nabataean script across northern Arabia. By the 4th century CE, the Nabataean Aramaic writing system had come to express varieties of Arabic other than that of the Nabataeans.Old Hijazi and Classical Arabic edit In late preIslamic times, a transdialectal and transcommunal variety of Arabic emerged in the Hijaz which continued living its parallel life after literary Arabic had been institutionally standardized in the 2nd and 3rd century of the Hijra , most strongly in JudeoChristian texts, keeping alive ancient features eliminated from the learned tradition (Classical Arabic). 12 This variety and both its classicizing and lay iterations have been termed Middle Arabic in the past, but they are thought to continue an Old Higazi register. It is clear that the orthography of the Quran was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi.In the late 6th century AD, a relatively uniform intertribal poetic koine distinct from the spoken vernaculars developed based on the Bedouin dialects of Najd , probably in connection with the court of alra . During the first Islamic century, the majority of Arabic poets and Arabicwriting persons spoke Arabic as their mother tongue. Their texts, although mainly preserved in far later manuscripts, contain traces of nonstandardized Classical Arabic elements in morphology and syntax. The standardization of Classical Arabic reached completion around the end of the 8th century. The first comprehensive description of the arabiyya Arabic, Sbawayhis alKitb, is based first of all upon a corpus of poetic texts, in addition to Quran usage and Bedouin informants whom he considered to be reliable speakers of the arabiyya. 13 By the 8th century, knowledge of Classical Arabic had become an essential prerequisite for rising into the higher classes throughout the Islamic world.NeoArabic edit Charles Fergusons koine theory (Ferguson 1959) claims that the modern Arabic dialects collectively descend from a single military koine that sprang up during the Islamic conquests this view has been challenged in recent times. Ahmad alJallad proposes that there were at least two considerably distinct types of Arabic on the eve of the conquests: Northern and Central (AlJallad 2009). The modern dialects emerged from a new contact situation produced following the conquests. Instead of the emergence of a single or multiple koines, the dialects contain several sedimentary layers of borrowed and areal features, which they absorbed at different points in their linguistic histories. 13 According to Veersteegh and Bickerton, colloquial Arabic dialects arose from pidginized Arabic formed from contact between Arabs and conquered peoples. Pidginization and subsequent creolization among Arabs and arabized peoples could explain relative morphological and phonological simplicity of vernacular Arabic compared to Classical and MSA. 14 15Classical, Modern Standard and spoken Arabic edit See also: List of Arabic dictionariesArabic usually designates one of three main variants: Classical Arabic , Modern Standard Arabic and colloquial or dialectal Arabic . Classical Arabic is the language found in the Quran , used from the period of PreIslamic Arabia to that of the Abbasid Caliphate . Theoretically, Classical Arabic is considered normative, according to the syntactic and grammatical norms laid down by classical grammarians (such as Sibawayh ) and the vocabulary defined in classical dictionaries (such as the Lisn alArab ). In practice, however, modern authors almost never write in pure Classical Arabic, instead using a literary language with its own grammatical norms and vocabulary, commonly known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA).MSA is the variety used in most current, printed Arabic publications, spoken by some of the Arabic media across North Africa , and the Middle East , and understood by most educated Arabic speakers. Literary Arabic and Standard Arabic ( fu) are less strictly defined terms that may refer to Modern Standard Arabic or Classical Arabic.Some of the differences between Classical Arabic (CA) and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) are as follows:Certain grammatical constructions of CA that have no counterpart in any modern dialect (e.g., the energetic mood ) are almost never used in Modern Standard Arabic .No modern spoken variety of Arabic has case distinctions. As a result, MSA is generally composed without case distinctions in mind, and the proper cases are added after the fact, when necessary. Because most case endings are noted using final short vowels, which are normally left unwritten in the Arabic script, it is unnecessary to determine the proper case of most words. The practical result of this is that MSA, like English and Standard Chinese , is written in a strongly determined word order and alternative orders that were used in CA for emphasis are rare. In addition, because of the lack of case marking in the spoken varieties, most speakers cannot consistently use the correct endings in extemporaneous speech. As a result, spoken MSA tends to drop or regularize the endings except when reading from a prepared text.The numeral system in CA is complex and heavily tied in with the case system. This system is never used in MSA, even in the most formal of circumstances instead, a significantly simplified system is used, approximating the system of the conservative spoken varieties.MSA uses much Classical vocabulary (e.g., dhahaba to go) that is not present in the spoken varieties, but deletes Classical words that sound obsolete in MSA. In addition, MSA has borrowed or coined a large number of terms for concepts that did not exist in Quranic times, and MSA continues to evolve. 16 Some words have been borrowed from other languagesnotice that transliteration mainly indicates spelling and not real pronunciation (e.g., film film or dmuqriyyah democracy).However, the current preference is to avoid direct borrowings, preferring to either use loan translations (e.g., far branch, also used for the branch of a company or organization jan wing, is also used for the wing of an airplane, building, air force, etc.), or to coin new words using forms within existing roots ( istimtah apoptosis , using the root mwt death put into the Xth form , or jmiah university, based on jamaa to gather, unite jumhriyyah republic, based on jumhr multitude). An earlier tendency was to redefine an older word although this has fallen into disuse (e.g., htif telephone invisible caller (in Sufism) jardah newspaper palmleaf stalk).Colloquial or dialectal Arabic refers to the many national or regional varieties which constitute the everyday spoken language and evolved from Classical Arabic. Colloquial Arabic has many regional variants geographically distant varieties usually differ enough to be mutually unintelligible , and some linguists consider them distinct languages. 17 The varieties are typically unwritten. They are often used in informal spoken media, such as soap operas and talk shows , 18 as well as occasionally in certain forms of written media such as poetry and printed advertising.The only variety of modern Arabic to have acquired official language status is Maltese , which is spoken in (predominately Catholic ) Malta and written with the Latin script . It is descended from Classical Arabic through SiculoArabic , but is not mutually intelligible with any other variety of Arabic. Most linguists list it as a separate language rather than as a dialect of Arabic.Flag of the Arab League , used in some cases for the Arabic language.Flag used in some cases for the Arabic languageEven during Muhammads lifetime, there were dialects of spoken Arabic. Muhammad spoke in the dialect of Mecca , in the western Arabian peninsula , and it was in this dialect that the Quran was written down. However, the dialects of the eastern Arabian peninsula were considered the most prestigious at the time, so the language of the Quran was ultimately converted to follow the eastern phonology . It is this phonology that underlies the modern pronunciation of Classical Arabic. The phonological differences between these two dialects account for some of the complexities of Arabic writing, most notably the writing of the glottal stop or hamzah (which was preserved in the eastern dialects but lost in western speech) and the use of alif maqrah (representing a sound preserved in the western dialects but merged with in eastern speech). citation needed Language and dialect edit The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of diglossia , which is the normal use of two separate varieties of the same language, usually in different social situations. In the case of Arabic, educated Arabs of any nationality can be assumed to speak both their schooltaught Standard Arabic as well as their native, mutually unintelligible dialects 19 20 21 22 23 these dialects linguistically constitute separate languages which may have dialects of their own. 24 When educated Arabs of different dialects engage in conversation (for example, a Moroccan speaking with a Lebanese), many speakers codeswitch back and forth between the dialectal and standard varieties of the language, sometimes even within the same sentence. Arabic speakers often improve their familiarity with other dialects via music or film.The issue of whether Arabic is one language or many languages is politically charged, in the same way it is for the varieties of Chinese , Hindi and Urdu , Serbian and Croatian , Scots and English, etc. In contrast to speakers of Hindi and Urdu who claim they cannot understand each other even when they can, speakers of the varieties of Arabic will claim they can all understand each other even when they cannot. 25 The issue of diglossia between spoken and written language is a significant complicating factor: A single written form, significantly different from any of the spoken varieties learned natively, unites a number of sometimes divergent spoken forms. For political reasons, Arabs mostly assert that they all speak a single language, despite significant issues of mutual incomprehensibility among differing spoken versions. 26From a linguistic standpoint, it is often said that the various spoken varieties of Arabic differ among each other collectively about as much as the Romance languages . 27 This is an apt comparison in a number of ways. The period of divergence from a single spoken form is similarperhaps 1500 years for Arabic, 2000 years for the Romance languages. Also, while it is comprehensible to people from the Maghreb , a linguistically innovative variety such as Moroccan Arabic is essentially incomprehensible to Arabs from the Mashriq , much as French is incomprehensible to Spanish or Italian speakers but relatively easily learned by them. This suggests that the spoken varieties may linguistically be considered separate languages.Influence of Arabic on other languages edit The influence of Arabic has been most important in Islamic countries, because it is the language of the Islamic sacred book, the Quran. Arabic is also an important source of vocabulary for languages such as Baluchi , Bengali , Berber , Bosnian , Chechen , Croatian , Dagestani , English , German , Gujarati , Hausa , Hindustani , Kazakh , Kurdish , Kutchi , Malay ( Malaysian and Indonesian ), Pashto , Persian , Punjabi , Rohingya , Romance languages ( French , Catalan , Italian , Portuguese , Sicilian , Spanish , etc.) Saraiki , Sindhi , Somali , Swahili , Tagalog , Turkish , Uzbek , Visayan and Wolof , as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. citation needed In addition, English has many Arabic loanwords, some directly, but most via other Mediterranean languages. Examples of such words include admiral, adobe, alchemy, alcohol, algebra, algorithm, alkaline, almanac, amber, arsenal, assassin, candy, carat, cipher, coffee, cotton, ghoul, hazard, jar, kismet, lemon, loofah, magazine, mattress, sherbet, sofa, sumac, tariff, and many other words. citation needed Other languages such as Maltese 28 and Kinubi derive ultimately from Arabic, rather than merely borrowing vocabulary or grammatical rules.Terms borrowed range from religious terminology (like Berber taallit, prayer, from salat ( alh)), academic terms (like Uyghur mentiq, logic), and economic items (like English coffee) to placeholders (like Spanish fulano, soandso), everyday terms (like Hindustani lekin, but, or Spanish taza and French tasse, meaning cup), and expressions (like Catalan a betzef, galore, in quantity). Most Berber varieties (such as Kabyle ), along with Swahili, borrow some numbers from Arabic. Most Islamic religious terms are direct borrowings from Arabic, such as (salat), prayer, and (imam), prayer leader.In languages not directly in contact with the Arab world, Arabic loanwords are often transferred indirectly via other languages rather than being transferred directly from Arabic. For example, most Arabic loanwords in Hindustani and Turkish entered through Persian though Persian is an IndoIranian language . Older Arabic loanwords in Hausa were borrowed from Kanuri .Some words in English and other European languages are derived from Arabic, often through other European languages, especially Spanish and Italian. Among them are commonly used words like coffee ( qahwah), cotton ( qun), and magazine ( makhzin ). English words more recognizably of Arabic origin include algebra , alcohol , alchemy , alkali , zenith , and nadir .Arabic words also made their way into several West African languages as Islam spread across the Sahara. Variants of Arabic words such as kitb (book) have spread to the languages of African groups who had no direct contact with Arab traders. 29Since throughout the Islamic world, Arabic occupied a position similar to that of Latin in Europe, many of the Arabic concepts in the fields of science, philosophy, commerce, etc. were coined from Arabic roots by nonnative Arabic speakers, notably by Aramaic and Persian translators, and then found their way into other languages. This process of using Arabic roots, especially in Kurdish and Persian, to translate foreign concepts continued through to the 18th and 19th centuries, when swaths of Arabinhabited lands were under Ottoman rule .Influence of other languages on Arabic edit The most important sources of borrowings into (preIslamic) Arabic are from the related (Semitic) languages Aramaic , 30 which used to be the principal, international language of communication throughout the ancient Near and Middle East, Ethiopic , and to a lesser degree Hebrew (mainly religious concepts). In addition, many cultural, religious and political terms have entered Arabic from Iranian languages , notably Middle Persian , Parthian , and (Classical) Persian, 31 and Hellenistic Greek (kmiy has as origin the Greek khymia, meaning in that language the melting of metals see Roger Dachez , Histoire de la Mdecine de lAntiquit au XXe sicle, Tallandier, 2008, p.251), alembic (distiller) from ambix (cup), almanac (climate) from almenichiakon (calendar). (For the origin of the last three borrowed words, see AlfredLouis de Prmare, Foundations of Islam, Seuil, LUnivers Historique, 2002.) Some Arabic borrowings from Semitic or Persian languages are, as presented in De Prmares abovecited book:madnah medina (, city or city square), a word of Aramaic or Hebrew origin (in which it means a state)jazrah (), as in the wellknown form AlJazeera, means island and has its origin in the Syriac gazra.lzaward () is taken from Persian ljvard, the name of a blue stone, lapis lazuli. This word was borrowed in several European languages to mean (light) blue azure in English, azur in French and azul in Portuguese and Spanish.Arabic alphabet and nationalism edit There have been many instances of national movements to convert Arabic script into Latin script or to Romanize the language. Currently, the only Arabic language to use Latin script is Maltese .Lebanon edit The Beirut newspaper La Syrie pushed for the change from Arabic script to Latin letters in 1922. The major head of this movement was Louis Massignon , a French Orientalist, who brought his concern before the Arabic Language Academy in Damacus in 1928. Massignons attempt at Romanization failed as the Academy and population viewed the proposal as an attempt from the Western world to take over their country. Said Afghani , a member of the Academy, mentioned that the movement to Romanize the script was a Zionist plan to dominate Lebanon. 32 33Egypt edit After the period of colonialism in Egypt, Egyptians were looking for a way to reclaim and reemphasize Egyptian culture. As a result, some Egyptians pushed for an Egyptianization of the Arabic language in which the formal Arabic and the colloquial Arabic would be combined into one language and the Latin alphabet would be used. 32 33 There was also the idea of finding a way to use Hieroglyphics instead of the Latin alphabet, but this was seen as too complicated to use. 32 33 A scholar, Salama Musa agreed with the idea of applying a Latin alphabet to Arabic, as he believed that would allow Egypt to have a closer relationship with the West. He also believed that Latin script was key to the success of Egypt as it would allow for more advances in science and technology. This change in alphabet, he believed, would solve the problems inherent with Arabic, such as a lack of written vowels and difficulties writing foreign words that made it difficult for nonnative speakers to learn. 32 33 Ahmad Lutfi As Sayid and Muhammad Azmi, two Egyptian intellectuals, agreed with Musa and supported the push for Romanization. 32 34 The idea that Romanization was necessary for modernization and growth in Egypt continued with Abd AlAziz Fahmi in 1944. He was the chairman for the Writing and Grammar Committee for the Arabic Language Academy of Cairo. 32 34 However, this effort failed as the Egyptian people felt a strong cultural tie to the Arabic alphabet. 32 34 In particular, the older Egyptian generations believed that the Arabic alphabet had strong connections to Arab values and history, which is easy to believe due to the long history of the Arabic alphabet (Shrivtiel, 189) in Muslim societies.The language of the Quran and its influence on Poetry edit The Quran introduced a new way of writing to the world. People began studying applying the unique styles they learned from the Quran into not only their own writing, but also their culture . The deep level on which the Quran addresses the reader creates a strong bond and connection to the readers soul. Writers studied the unique structure and format of the Quran in order to identify and apply the figurative devices and their impact on the reader.Qurans figurative devices edit The Quran inspired musicality in poetry through the internal rhythm of the verses. The arrangement of words, how certain sounds create harmony, and the agreement of rhymes create the sense of rhythm within each verse. At times, the chapters of the Quran only have the rhythm in common. 35The repetition in the Quran introduced the true power and impact repetition can have in poetry. The repetition of certain words and phrases made them appear more firm and explicit in the Quran. The Quran uses constant metaphors of blindness and deafness to imply unbelief. Metaphors were not a new concept to poetry, however the strength of extended metaphors was. The explicit imagery in the Quran inspired many poets to include and focus on the feature in their own work. The poet ibn al mutazz wrote a book regarding the figures of speech inspired by his study of the Quran. OPoets such as badr Shakir al sayyab expresses his political opinion in his work through imagery inspired by the forms of more harsher imagery used in the Quran. 36 The Quran uses figurative devices in order to express the meaning in the most beautiful form possible. The study of the pauses in the Quran as well as other rhetoric allow it to be approached in a multiple ways. 37Structure edit Although the Quran is known for its fluency and harmony , the structure can be best described as chaotic . The suras also known as verses of the Quran are not placed in chronological order. The only constant in their structure is that the longest are placed first and shorter ones follow. The topics discussed in the chapter often have no relation to each other and only share their sense of rhyme . The Quran introduces to poetry the idea of abandoning order and scattering narratives throughout the text. Harmony is also present in the sound of the Quran. The elongations and accents present in the Quran create a harmonious flow within the writing. Unique sound of the Quran recited, due to the accents , create a deeper level of understanding through a deeper emotional connection. 36The Quran is written in a language that is simple and understandable by people. The simplicity of the writing inspired later poets to write in a more clear and clearcut style. 36 The words of the Quran, although unchanged, are to this day understandable and frequently used in both formal and informal Arabic. The simplicity of the language makes memorizing and reciting the Quran a slightly easier task.Culture and the Quran edit The writer alKhattabi explains how culture is a required element to create a sense of art in work as well as understand it. He believes that fluency and harmony the Quran possess are not the only elements that make it beautiful and create a bond between the reader and the text. While a lot of poetry was deemed comparable to the Quran in that it is equal to or better than the composition of the Quran, a debate rose that such statements are not possible because humans are incapable of composing work comparable to the Quran. 37 Because the structure of the Quran made it difficult for a clear timeline to be seen, Hadith were the main source of chronological order. The Hadith were passed down from generation to generation and this tradition became a large resource for understanding the context. Poetry after the Quran began possessing this element of tradition by including ambiguity and background information to be required to understand the meaning. 35After the Quran came down to the people, the tradition of memorizing the verses became present. It is believed that the larger amount of the Quran memorized is a sign of a stronger faith. As technology improved overtime, hearing recitations of Quran became more available as well as more tools to help memorize the versus. The tradition of Love Poetry served as a symbolic representation of a Muslims desire for a closer contact with their Lord.While the influence of the Quran on Arabic poetry is explained and defended by numerous writers, some writers such as Al Baqillani believe that poetry and the Quran are in no conceivable way related due to the uniqueness of the Quran. Poetrys imperfections prove his points that that they cannot be compared with the fluency the Quran holds.Arabic and Islam edit Classical Arabic is the language of poetry and literature (including news) it is also mainly the language of the Quran . At present, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is also used in modernized versions of literary forms of the Quran. Classical Arabic is closely associated with the religion of Islam because the Quran was written in it. Most of the worlds Muslims do not speak Classical Arabic as their native language, but many can read the Quranic script and recite the Quran. Among nonArab Muslims, translations of the Quran are most often accompanied by the original text.Some Muslims present a monogenesis of languages and claim that the Arabic language was the language revealed by God for the benefit of mankind and the original language as a prototype system of symbolic communication, based upon its system of triconsonantal roots, spoken by man from which all other languages were derived, having first been corrupted. 38 39 Judaism has a similar account with the Tower of Babel .Dialects and descendants edit Main article: Varieties of ArabicDifferent dialects of Arabic.Colloquial Arabic is a collective term for the spoken dialects of Arabic used throughout the Arab world , which differ radically from the literary language. The main dialectal division is between the varieties within and outside of the Arabian peninsula, followed by that between sedentary varieties and the much more conservative Bedouin varieties. All of the varieties outside of the Arabian peninsula (which include the large majority of speakers) have a large number of features in common with each other that are not found in Classical Arabic. This has led researchers to postulate the existence of a prestige koine dialect in the one or two centuries immediately following the Arab conquest, whose features eventually spread to all of the newly conquered areas. (These features are present to varying degrees inside the Arabian peninsula. Generally, the Arabian peninsula varieties have much more diversity than the nonpeninsula varieties, but have been understudied.)Within the nonpeninsula varieties, the largest difference is between the nonEgyptian North African dialects (especially Moroccan Arabic) and the others. Moroccan Arabic in particular is hardly comprehensible to Arabic speakers east of Libya (although the converse is not true, in part due to the popularity of Egyptian films and other media).One factor in the differentiation of the dialects is influence from the languages previously spoken in the areas, which have typically provided a significant number of new words and have sometimes also influenced pronunciation or word order however, a much more significant factor for most dialects is, as among Romance languages, retention (or change of meaning) of different classical forms. Thus Iraqi aku, Levantine fh and North African kayn all mean there is, and all come from Classical Arabic forms (yakn, fhi, kin respectively), but now sound very different.Examples edit Transcription is a broad IPA transcription , so minor differences were ignored for easier comparison. Also, the pronunciation of Modern Standard Arabic differs significantly from region to region.VarietyI love reading a lotWhen I went to the libraryI didnt find this old bookI wanted to read a book about the history of women in FranceLiterary Arabic in Arabic script(common spelling)

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