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For other people named Roy Moore, see Roy Moore (disambiguation) .Roy Moore28th and 32nd Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of AlabamaIn officeJanuary 15, 2013 April 26, 2017Suspended: May 6, 2016 April 26, 2017Preceded byJanuary 15, 2001 November 13, 2003Preceded byVietnam WarRoy Stewart Moore (born February 11, 1947) is an American politician and jurist who served as the 28th and 32nd Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama . He was the Republican nominee in the 2017 United States Senate special election in Alabama to fill the seat vacated by Jeff Sessions . Moore lost to Democratic candidate Doug Jones . 1 2Moore attended West Point and served as a company commander in the Military Police Corps during the Vietnam War . After graduating from the University of Alabama Law School , he joined the Etowah County district attorneys office, serving as an assistant district attorney from 1977 to 1982. In 1992 he was appointed as a circuit judge to fill a vacancy, and elected to the position at the end of the term. In 2001 Moore was elected to the position of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama . He was removed from his position in November 2003 by the Alabama Court of the Judiciary for refusing a federal court s order to remove a marble monument of the Ten Commandments .Moore sought the Republican nomination for the governorship of Alabama in 2006 and 2010 , but lost in the primaries. Moore was again elected Chief Justice in 2013, but was suspended in May 2016, for defying a U.S. Supreme Court decision about samesex marriage . Moore resigned in April 2017, and in September 2017 was nominated for the U.S. Senate seat vacated by Jeff Sessions. 3 4During this special election campaign for U.S. Senate, allegations of sexual misconduct were made against him . 5 Three women stated that he had sexually assaulted them when they were at the respective ages of 14, 16 and 28. 5 6 Moore acknowledged that he may have approached and dated teenagers while he was in his 30s, but denied that any of the girls were underage or that he had sexually assaulted anyone. 7 8 President Donald Trump endorsed Moore a week before the election, 9 after which some Republicans withdrew their opposition to Moore. Democrat Doug Jones won the election, becoming the first Democrat since 1992 to win a US senate seat in Alabama. 10Moore is considered an advocate of farright politics. 11 12 13 He attracted national media attention and controversy over what have been called strongly racist , homophobic , transphobic , antisemitic and Islamophobic views, his belief that Christianity should order public policy, 14 15 and his past ties to neoConfederates and white nationalist groups. 16 17 18 19 20 Moore, along with Trump, was a leading voice in the birther movement, which promoted the false claim that former President Barack Obama was not born in the United States. 21 22 23 He founded the Foundation for Moral Law , a nonprofit legal organization from which he collected more than 1 million over five years, though a far smaller amount was indicated on its tax filings. 24ContentsEarly life edit Education and military service edit Moore was born in Gadsden , Alabama , the seat of Etowah County , to construction worker Roy Baxter Moore, who died in 1967, and the former Evelyn Stewart. His parents met and married after his father, who served during World War II , was discharged from the United States Army . Moore was the oldest of five children. While growing up, he had two brothers and two sisters. 25In 1954, the Moores relocated to Houston , Texas , the site of a postwar building boom. After about four years, they returned to Alabama, then moved to Pennsylvania , and then returned permanently to Alabama. Moores father worked for the Tennessee Valley Authority , first building dams and later the Anniston Army Depot. Moore attended his freshman year of high school at Gallant near Gadsden, and transferred to Etowah County High School for his final three years, graduating in 1965. 25Moore was admitted to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York , on the recommendation of outgoing Democratic U.S. Representative Albert Rains , and after confirmation of that nomination by incoming Republican Representative James D. Martin of Gadsden. He graduated in 1969 with a Bachelor of Science degree. With the Vietnam War underway, Moore served in several posts as a military police officer, including Fort Benning, Georgia , and Illesheim , Germany , before being deployed to the Republic of Vietnam . Serving as the commander of 188th Military Police Company of the 504th Military Police Battalion, 26 Moore was perceived to be reckless, but very strict. He insisted his troops salute him on the battlefield, despite official training which discourages such behavior because salutes can identify an officer to enemy targeting. 27 Some of his soldiers gave him the derogatory nickname Captain America, due to his attitude toward discipline. This role earned him enemies, and in his autobiography he recalls sleeping on sandbags to avoid a grenade or bomb being tossed under his cot, as many of his men had threatened him with fragging . 25Moore was discharged from the United States Army as a captain in 1974, and was admitted to the University of Alabama School of Law that same year. Professors and fellow students held him in low regard due to his incapacity for keen analysis. 27 He graduated in 1977 with a Juris Doctor degree and returned to Gadsden to begin private practice with a focus on personal injury and insurance cases.Elections and travels edit Moore soon moved to the district attorneys office, working as the first fulltime prosecutor in Etowah County. During his tenure there, Moore was investigated by the state bar for suspect conduct after convening a grand jury to examine what he perceived to have been funding shortages in the sheriff s office. Several weeks after the state bar investigation was dismissed as unfounded, Moore quit his prosecuting position to run as a Democrat for the countys circuitcourt judge seat in 1982. The election was bitter, with Moore alleging that cases were being delayed in exchange for payoffs. The allegations were never substantiated. Moore overwhelmingly lost the Democratic runoff primary to fellow attorney Donald Stewart, whom Moore described as an honorable man for whom I have much respect, (who) eventually became a close friend. 25 A second bar complaint against Moore followed, which was dismissed as unfounded. Moore left Gadsden shortly thereafter to live for a year in Australia. 28 29In Australia, a country Moore said later he had wanted to visit after his service in Vietnam but was unable to at the time, he went to Queensland . From the state capital, Brisbane , he first went to Ayr and helped with the sugar cane harvest, then inland to what is now the Central Highlands Region , where he fulfilled his longtime desire to see the Outback , eventually working at the Telemon ranch near Springsure , a town where many residents are devout Christians. One of them, the Rolfe family, ran Telemon, and spoke highly of Moore to The Guardian in 2017, I dont think hed ever done that sort of manual labor in his life, said Isla Turner, daughter of Colin Rolfe, who had taken Moore in, but he took to it like a duck to water. 30Moore returned to Gadsden in 1985, and at that time married Kayla Kisor. He ran in 1986 for Etowah Countys district attorney position against fellow Democrat Jimmy Hedgspeth. Losing once more, Moore returned to private practice in the city. In 1992, Moore switched his affiliation to the GOP .Appointment edit In 1992, Etowah County Circuit Judge Julius Swann died in office. Republican Governor H. Guy Hunt was charged with making a temporary appointment until the next election. Moores name was floated by some of his associates, and a background check was initiated with several state and county agencies, including the Etowah County district attorneys office. Moores former political opponent Jimmy Hedgspeth, who still helmed the D.A.s office, recommended Moore despite personal reservations, and Moore was installed in the position he had failed to win in 1982. 31 Moore ran as a Republican in the 1994 Etowah County election and was elected to the circuit judge seat (6 year term) with 62 of the vote. He was the first countywide Republican to win since Reconstruction .Early prayerTen Commandments controversy edit During Moores tenure as circuit judge, he hung a homemade wooden Ten Commandments plaque on the wall of his courtroom behind his bench. 32 Moore told the Montgomery Advertiser that his intention in hanging the plaque was to fill up the bare space on the courtroom walls and to indicate the importance of the Ten Commandments. He stated that it was not his intention to generate controversy. He told the Atlantic that he understood the potential for controversy existed, but I wanted to establish the moral foundation of our law. 33While Moore presided over a murder case shortly after his appointment, the defendants attorney objected to the plaque. This attracted the attention of critics who also objected to Moores practice of opening court sessions with a prayer beseeching divine guidance for jurors in their deliberations. In at least one case, Moore asked a clergyman to lead the courts jury pool in prayer. The local branch of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) sent a letter in June 1993 threatening a lawsuit if such prayers did not cease. 31On June 20, 1994, the ACLU sent a representative to Moores courtroom to observe and record the presession prayer. Though the organization did not immediately file suit, Moore decried the action as an act of intimidation in a posttrial press conference. The incident drew additional attention to Moore while he was campaigning to hold onto his circuit court seat. In that years election, Moore won the seat in a landslide victory over attorney Keith Pitts, who had unsuccessfully prosecuted the Silk and Satin murder case. 34Lawsuit edit In March 1995, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against Moore, stating that the presession prayers and the Ten Commandments display were both unconstitutional. This original lawsuit was eventually dismissed for technical reasons, but Governor Fob James instructed state Attorney General Bill Pryor to file suit in Montgomery County in support of Moore. The case ended up before state Circuit Judge Charles Price, who in 1996 declared the prayers unconstitutional but initially allowed the Ten Commandments plaque to remain on the courtroom walls. 35Immediately after the ruling, Moore held a press conference vowing to defy the ruling against presession prayers and affirming a religious intent in displaying the plaque. Critics responded by asking Price to reconsider his previous ruling, and the judge issued a new ruling requiring the Ten Commandments plaque to be removed in ten days. Moore appealed Prices decision and kept the plaque up ten days later the Alabama Supreme Court issued a temporary stay against the ruling. The Court never ruled in the case, throwing it out for technical reasons in 1998. 31Chief Justice, Alabama Supreme Court (20012003) and (20122016) edit Campaign and election edit In late 1999, the American Family Association began working to draft Moore into the race for Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court, when incumbent Republican Perry O. Hooper, Sr. , of Montgomery announced that he would not seek reelection. Moore said that he was hesitant to make the statewide race because he had absolutely no funds and three other candidates, particularly Associate Justice Harold See , were wellfinanced. 25Nevertheless, on December 7, 1999, Moore announced from his Etowah County courtroom that he would enter the race with the hope of returning God to our public life and restore the moral foundation of our law. His campaign, centered on religious issues, arguing that Christianitys declining influence corresponded directly with school violence, homosexuality, and crime. 31Associate Justice Harold See was the heavy favorite to win the Republican nomination because of his support from the state business community and the party hierarchy, including Chief Justice Hooper. However, as Moore made headway in state polls, See elicited the help of Republican strategist Karl Rove , advisor to Texas Governor and future President George W. Bush . Despite Roves support and significantly more campaign funding, See lost the primary to Moore. Judge Moore also beat two other opponents, Criminal Appeals Judge Pam Baschab, and Jefferson County Presiding Circuit Judge Wayne Thorn, in the Republican Primarywithout a runoffgarnering over 50 of the statewide primary vote. Judge Moore then easily defeated Democratic contender Sharon Yates in Novembers general election with over 60 of the vote.Moore was sworn in as Chief Justice on January 15, 2001. Republican former U.S. Representative James D. Martin, who had appointed Moore to West Point years earlier, was among the dignitaries in attendance. On taking the position, Moore said that he had come to realize the real meaning of the First Amendment and its relationship to the God on whom the oath was based. My mind had been opened to the spiritual war occurring in our state and our nation that was slowly removing the knowledge of that relationship between God and law.I pledged to support not only the U.S. Constitution, but the Alabama Constitution as well, which provided in its preamble that the state established justice by invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God. The connection between God and our law could not be more clear... 25Ten Commandments monument controversy edit The Ten Commandments monument in the Alabama Supreme Court building, erected in 2001Construction and installation edit A month after his election, Moore began making plans for a larger monument to the Ten Commandments, reasoning that the Alabama Supreme Court building required something grander than a wooden plaque. His final design involved a 5,280 pound (2,400kg) granite block, three feet wide by three feet deep by four feet tall, covered with quotes from the Declaration of Independence , the national anthem, and various founding fathers. 36 The crowning element would be two large carved tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments. Highgrade granite from Vermont was ordered and shipped, and Moore found benefactors and a sculptor to complete the job.On the evening of July 31, 2001, despite some initial installation difficulties and concerns regarding structural support for the monuments weight, Moore had the completed monument transported to the state judicial building and installed in the central rotunda. The installation was filmed, and videotapes of the event were sold by Coral Ridge Ministries , an evangelical media outlet in Fort Lauderdale , Florida , which later used proceeds from the sales of the film to underwrite Moores ensuing legal expenses. Coral Ridge was the operation of the late televangelist Reverend D. James Kennedy , 37 a staunch Moore supporter. 38The next morning, Moore held a press conference in the central rotunda to officially unveil the monument. In a speech following the unveiling, Moore declared, Today a cry has gone out across our land for the acknowledgment of that God upon whom this nation and our laws were founded... May this day mark the restoration of the moral foundation of law to our people and the return to the knowledge of God in our land. 39Main article: Glassroth v. MooreOn October 30, 2001, the ACLU of Alabama , Americans United for Separation of Church and State and the Southern Poverty Law Center were among groups that filed suit in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama, asking that the monument be removed because it sends a message to all who enter the State Judicial Building that the government encourages and endorses the practice of religion in general and JudeoChristianity in particular. 40The trial, titled Glassroth v. Moore , began on October 15, 2002. Evidence for the plaintiffs included testimony that lawyers of different religious beliefs had changed their work practices, including routinely avoiding visiting the court building to avoid passing by the monument, and testimony that the monument created a religious atmosphere, with many people using the area for prayer. 41Moore argued that he would not remove the monument, as doing so would violate his oath of office:The monument serves to remind the Appellate Courts and judges of the Circuit and District Court of this State and members of the bar who appear before them, as well as the people of Alabama who visit the Alabama Judicial Building, of the truth stated in the Preamble to the Alabama Constitution that in order to establish justice we must invoke the favor and guidance of almighty God. 36On this note, Moore said that the Ten Commandments are the moral foundation of U.S. law, stating that in order to restore this foundation, we must first recognize the source from which all morality springs... by recognizing the sovereignty of God. He added that the addition of the monument to the state judiciary building marked the beginning of the restoration of the moral foundation of law to our people and a return to the knowledge of God in our land. 36Additionally, Moore acknowledged an explicit theistic intent in placing the monument, agreeing that the monument reflects the sovereignty of God over the affairs of men and acknowledges Gods overruling power over the affairs of men. 42 However, in Moores view this did not violate the doctrine of separation of church and state as the presiding judge later summarized it, Moore argued the JudeoChristian God reigned over both the church and the state in this country, and that both owed allegiance to that God, although they must keep their affairs separate. 36Judgment and appeal edit On November 18, 2002, federal U.S. District Judge Myron Thompson issued his ruling declaring that the monument violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and was thus unconstitutional:If all Chief Justice Moore had done were to emphasize the Ten Commandments historical and educational importance... or their importance as a model code for good citizenship ... this court would have a much different case before it. But the Chief Justice did not limit himself to this he went far, far beyond. He installed a twoandahalf ton monument in the most prominent place in a government building, managed with dollars from all state taxpayers, with the specific purpose and effect of establishing a permanent recognition of the sovereignty of God, the JudeoChristian God, over all citizens in this country, regardless of each taxpaying citizens individual personal beliefs or lack thereof. To this, the Establishment Clause says no. 36Judge Thompsons decision mandated that Moore remove the monument from the state judicial building by January 3, 2003, but stayed this order on December 23, 2002, after Moore appealed the decision to the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals . This appeal was argued on June 4, 2003, before a threejudge panel in Atlanta , Georgia . On July 1, 2003, the panel issued a ruling upholding the lower courts decision, agreeing that the monument fails two of Lemons three prongs. It violates the Establishment Clause. Additionally, the court noted that different religious traditions assign different wordings of the Ten Commandments, meaning that choosing which version of the Ten Commandments to display can have religious endorsement implications. 42In response to the appeals courts decision, Judge Thompson lifted his earlier stay on August 5, 2003, requiring Moore to have the monument removed from public areas of the state judicial building by August 20. 43Protests and monument removal edit Rally before the Alabama State Capitol, August 16, 2003On August 14, Moore announced his intention to defy Judge Thompsons order to have the monument removed. Two days later, large rallies in support of Moore and the Ten Commandments monument formed in front of the judicial building, featuring speakers such as Alan Keyes , the Reverend Jerry Falwell , and Moore himself. The crowd peaked at an estimated count of 4,000 that day, 44 and anywhere from several hundred to over a thousand protesters remained through the end of August.The time limit for removal expired on August 20, with the monument still in place in the buildings rotunda. As specified in Judge Thompsons order, the state of Alabama faced fines of 5,000 a day until the monument was removed. In response, the eight other members of the Alabama Supreme Court intervened on August 21, unanimously overruled Moore, and ordered the removal of the monument. 45Moore said that Thompson, fearing that I would not obey his order, decided to threaten other state officials and force them to remove the monument if I did not do so. A threat of heavy fines was his way of coercing obedience to that order, an action that Moore sees as a violation of the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution . 25On August 27, the monument was moved to a nonpublic side room in the judicial building. 46 The monument was not immediately removed from the building for several reasonspending legal hearings, the monuments weight, worries that the monument could break through the floor if it was taken outside intact, and a desire to avoid confrontation with protesters massed outside the structure. The monument was not actually removed from the state judicial building until July 19, 2004. 47Removal from office edit On August 22, 2003, two days after the deadline for the Ten Commandments monuments removal had passed, the Alabama Judicial Inquiry Commission (JIC) filed a complaint with the Alabama Court of the Judiciary (COJ), a panel of judges, lawyers and others appointed variously by judges, legal leaders, the governor and the lieutenant governor. The complaint effectively suspended Moore from the Chief Justice position pending a hearing by the COJ. 48The COJ ethics hearing was held on November 12, 2003. Moore repeated his earlier sentiment that to acknowledge God cannot be a violation of the Canons of Ethics. Without God there can be no ethics. He also acknowledged that he would repeat his defiance of the court order if given another opportunity to do so, and that if he returned to office, I certainly wouldnt leave the monument in a closet, shrouded from the public. In closing arguments, the Assistant Attorney General said Moores defiance, left unchecked, undercuts the entire workings of the judicial system... What message does that send to the public, to other litigants? The message it sends is: If you dont like a court order, you dont have to follow it. 49 Moore had previously stated his belief that the order was unlawful, and that compliance with such an order was not an enforceable mandate.The next day, the COJ issued a unanimous opinion ruling that Chief Justice Moore has violated the Alabama Canons of Judicial Ethics as alleged by the JIC in its complaint. The COJ had several disciplinary options, including censure or suspension without pay, but because Moores responses had indicated he would defy any similar court orders in the future, the COJ concluded that under these circumstances, there is no penalty short of removal from office that would resolve this issue. 50 Moore was immediately removed from his post.Moore appealed the COJs ruling to the Supreme Court of Alabama on December 10, 2003. A special panel of retired judges and justices was randomly selected to hear the case. Moore argued that the COJ did not consider the underlying legality of the federal courts order that the monument be removed from the courthouse. The Alabama Supreme Court rejected this argument, saying that the COJ did not have the authority to overrule the federal courts, only to determine whether Moore violated the Canons of Judicial Ethics. Therefore, the Court reasoned, it was enough to show that a procedurallyvalid order was in place against Moore. Moore also argued that the COJ had imposed a religious test on him to hold his office, and that the COJs actions had violated his own rights under the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. 51The Supreme Court of Alabama rejected each of these arguments as well, and ruled on April 30, 2004, that the COJ had acted properly. The court also upheld the sanction of removal as appropriate. 51Return to the bench edit Moore sought to return to the bench, and in the March 2012 Republican primary for chief justice of Alabama, Moore won the Republican nomination, defeating the sitting Chief Justice Chuck Malone (who had been appointed by Governor Bentley the previous year) and Mobile County Circuit Judge Charles Graddick. 52 53In the November 2012 general election, Moore defeated the Democratic nominee, Jefferson County Circuit Judge Bob Vance , and returned to the bench. 54 Moore received 913,021 votes, to Vances 850,816 votes. 55Views on samesex marriage edit On January 28, 2015, the Southern Poverty Law Center filed a judicial ethics complaint against Moore, stating that he had publicly commented on pending samesex marriage cases and encouraged state officials and judges to ignore federal court rulings overturning bans on samesex marriage. 56 57Moore issued an order to probate judges and their employees on February 8, the day before a federal court ruling legalizing samesex marriage in Alabama was set to take effect, ordering them to disregard the ruling and enforce the states ban under threat of legal action by the governor. 58 On February 9, after the United States Supreme Court allowed the federal court ruling to take effect, probate judges in Birmingham, Montgomery, and Huntsville disobeyed Moore and issued marriage licenses to samesex couples. 59On January 6, 2016, after the U.S. Supreme Court issued its opinion in Obergefell v. Hodges the previous June, Moore issued an administrative order to lower court judges stating, until further decision by the Alabama Supreme Court, the existing orders of the Alabama Supreme Court that Alabama probate judges have a ministerial duty not to issue any marriage license contrary to the Alabama Sanctity of Marriage Amendment or the Alabama Marriage Protection Act remain in full force and effect. 602016 suspension from the bench and resignation edit On May 6, 2016, the Alabama Judicial Inquiry Commission (JIC) forwarded a list of six charges of ethical violations by Moore to the Alabama Court of the Judiciary . 61 Moore was suspended from the Alabama Supreme Court pending trial and ruling. Moore faced removal from office over the charges, which were more serious than those which removed him from office in 2003. 62 63 The JICs complaint charged Moore with violating the Alabama Canon of Judicial Ethics by: 61disregarding a federal injunction.demonstrated unwillingness to follow clear law.abuse of administrative authority.substituting his judgment for the judgment of the entire Alabama Supreme Court, including failure to abstain from public comment about a pending proceeding in his own court.interference with legal process and remedies in the United States District Court andor Alabama Supreme Court related to proceedings in which Alabama probate judges were involved.failure to recuse himself from pending proceedings in the Alabama Supreme Court after making public comment and placing his impartiality into question.On May 27, Moore filed a federal lawsuit against the JIC (Moore v. Judicial Inquiry Commission), alleging that his automatic suspension was unconstitutional. 64 65 On August 4, the federal district court dismissed Moores suit, ruling that under the abstention doctrine , federal courts generally do not interfere with ongoing state court proceedings. 66 67Suspension by the Court of the Judiciary edit In June 2016, Moore filed a motion to dismiss the JIC proceedings, arguing, among other things, that the JIC and Alabama Court of the Judiciary lacked jurisdiction to review Administrative Orders that he issued and that the orders of the Alabama Supreme Court were still in effect from the Alabama Policy Institute proceedings prohibiting the issuance of samesex marriage licenses by probate judges in Alabama, despite the rulings in Obergefell v. Hodges issued by the U.S. Supreme Court , Searcy v. Strange , Strawser v. Strange , and the decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit , which held that the orders were abrogated by Obergefell. 61 68 69 70 71 The Court of the Judiciary set a hearing date for the motion to dismiss and ruled that it would be treated as a motion for summary judgment pertaining to the charges filed by the JIC. 72 73The Human Rights Campaign , an LGBT rights group, responded: It is clear that Roy Moore not only believes he is above the law, he believes he is above judicial ethics... Moore was tasked with upholding the law of the land when marriage equality was affirmed by the Supreme Court of the United States, and he defied that task, in the process harming loving, committed samesex couples across Alabama for his own personal, discriminatory reasons. 74In July 2016, the JIC filed a crossmotion for summary judgment, asking the Court of the Judiciary to issue summary judgment removing Moore from the bench. Attorneys for the JIC wrote: Because the chief justice has provenand promisedthat he will not change his behavior, he has left this Court with no choice but to remove him from office to preserve the integrity, independence, impartiality of Alabamas judiciary and the citizens who depend on it for justice. 75 76 77 In their reply, Moore (through his attorneys at Liberty Counsel) denied that Moore had directed Alabamas probate judges to disobey an injunction issued by the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama, asserting that the orders of the Alabama Supreme Court, which required Alabamas probate judges to deny marriage licenses to samesex couples, were still in effect. Moore argued that his January 6 Administrative Order was mischaracterized by the JIC, despite the fact that the January 6 order stated ... Until further decision by the Alabama Supreme Court, the existing orders of the Alabama Supreme Court that Alabama probate judges have a ministerial duty not to issue any marriage license contrary to the Alabama Sanctity of Marriage Amendment or the Alabama Marriage Protection Act remain in full force and effect. 78 79 80 81At an August 2016 hearing before the Alabama Court of the Judiciary on the motions to dismiss and for summary judgment, Moores attorneys continued to assert that Moore did not order probate judges to disobey the injunction issued by the U.S. District Court or the U.S. Supreme Court ruling on samesex marriage. The attorney for the JIC responded that Moores argument defies common sense and said that Moore was defying a federal court order, just as he did in 2003, and should be immediately removed from office. 82 83 The Alabama Court of the Judiciary subsequently denied both Moores motion and the JIC motion and set a trial date. 84On September 30, 2016, Moore was found guilty of all six charges and suspended for the remainder of his term, slated to end in 2019. 85 In its 50page order, the Court of the Judiciary stated it did not find credible Moores claim that the purpose for the January 6 order was merely to provide a status update to the states probate judges. 85 The ruling meant that Moore would not receive a salary paid for the remainder of his term. Moore also was ordered to pay court costs. The ruling effectively ended Moores Supreme Court career, as he would not be eligible for reelection in 2018 because he will be above the maximum age (in Alabama, candidates for the Court must be 69 years of age or younger). 86 87Appeal to the Alabama Supreme Court and resignation edit In October 2016, Moore filed a notice of appeal with the Court of the Judiciary appealing his suspension and the final judgment to the Alabama Supreme Court. Among other claims, Moore contended that neither the JIC nor the COJ had jurisdiction to investigate and punish him for his issuance of the Administrative Order of January 6, 2016 that the six charges against him had not been proven by clear and convincing evidence, and that by suspending him without pay for the remainder of his term, the COJ had effectively removed him from office without unanimous agreement of the COJ, as required under Alabama law. 88 89 90 91 Pending the appeal, Moore refused to clean out his office. 92The Alabama Supreme Court randomly selected seven retired judges to review the appeal of Moores suspension, 93 94 95 Governor Robert Bentley issued an executive order formally appointing the special Supreme Court of these seven retired justices to hear Moores appeal from the decision of the COJ that suspended him from the bench for the remainder of his term. 96In December 2016, Moorerepresented by the group Liberty Counsel filed his appeal brief with the special Alabama Supreme Court. 97 98 99 100 101 Eight current and retired Alabama judges filed an amicus brief in support of Moore, asserting in their filings that Moores suspension was, in fact, a removal from office and contrary to Alabama law since it required unanimous agreement of the COJ, despite the fact the COJ did unanimously agree in their final judgment to suspend Moore for the remainder of his term. 102 103At Moores request, 104 oral argument was canceled to speed up the proceedings, and the special Supreme Court agreed to rule on the case based on the written submissions of the parties. 105 106 107On April 20, the special Supreme Court upheld Moores suspension. 108 In its opinion, the special Supreme Court ruled that all of the JICs charges against Moore were supported by clear and convincing evidence. The Court also ruled that it did not have authority to rescind the sanctions imposed on Moore because the charges were amply supported by clear and convincing evidence, and that the JIC was unanimous in their decision to suspend Moore for the remainder of his term. 109Six days following the courts ruling, Moore resigned from the Alabama Supreme Court and announced he would be running for the United States Senate. 110 3 4 About Moores candidacy, Richard Shelby , Alabamas senior U.S. Senator, harbored concerns about him long before sexual misconduct allegations surfaced, including his willingness as a judge to disobey judicial orders, saying, I disagree with a lot of court decisions..., but still its the law. 111Personal life edit Marriage and children edit Moore first saw his future wife, Kayla Kisor , when she was in her mid teenage years, performing at a dance recital. In his 2005 autobiography, Moore described his reaction, writing: I knew Kayla was going to be a special person in my life. 112 Years later, Moore and Kisor met again at a Christmas party. She was then a divorced mother. They married a year later in 1985 when Moore was 38 and Kisor was 24. They have four adult children. 113Moore wrote weekly columns for the farright website WorldNetDaily from 2006 to 2009. 114 115Foundation for Moral Law edit Moore founded the nonprofit Christian legal organization Foundation for Moral Law in 2002. 116 Moores wife, Kayla , is the president of the Foundation for Moral Law. 117In 2005, Moores Foundation for Moral Law accepted a 1,000 contribution from a neoNazi organization founded by Willis Carto , a prominent Holocaust denier . The donation attracted attention during Moores 2017 campaign for a Senate seat. 118 119 120Undisclosed salary payment controversy edit Moore publicly said that he did not draw a regular salary from the organization. In October 2017, however, The Washington Post reported that Moore had arranged an annual salary of 180,000 for himself from the foundation. 24 From 2007 to 2012, he collected more than 1 million, a number that far surpasses what the nonprofit declared in its public tax filings, because of what the Post called errors and gaps in the groups federal tax filings. 24 Furthermore, The Washington Post reported that Moore arranged the salary and that, in 2012 when the charity could not pay his full salary, Moore received a note promising that he would get the salary in back pay or a stake in the assets of the foundation. 24 The foundation also paid for Moores healthcare benefits, travel expenses, and bodyguard, and the foundations website has regularly promoted Moores speaking arrangements and book. 24 Furthermore, the foundation employed at least two of Moores children and Moores wife. She was paid 65,000 annually after he again took his seat on the Alabama Supreme Court. 24 The Washington Post also noted that there was considerable overlap between the charity and Moores political activities, with previous top officials of the charity leading Moores 2017 Senate campaign and with the charity using the same fundraising firm as Moores campaigns. 24The foundations former chair, Alabama Circuit Court Judge John Bentley, denied that the board did anything wrong intentionally, but was unable to explain shortcomings in tax filings and audits. He admitted that the board failed to provide sufficient oversight and that he personally had been less involved than his position required. He acknowledged the foundation was effectively run entirely by Moore and his family. 24The IRS warned the foundation about discrepancies in its tax filings in 2013, saying that the issues could jeopardize your exempt status. 24 A number of charity and tax law experts have said that the foundations activities raised questions about compliance with IRS rules, including prohibitions on the use of a charity for the private benefit or enrichment of an individual. 24 Additional reporting by The Washington Post that October found that the 498,000 that Moore was guaranteed in back pay was not declared to the IRS tax experts say that it should have been and that Moore would have had to pay more than 100,000 in federal tax. 121Sexual misconduct allegations edit Main article: Roy Moore sexual misconduct allegationsDuring Moores election campaign for the Senate, a total of nine women accused Moore of inappropriate sexual or social conduct. 122 Three of the women said they had been sexually assaulted by Moore when they were aged 14, 16, and 28. 6 The other six described him pursuing a romantic relationship with them while he was in his 30s and they were as young as 16, but said there had not been any inappropriate sexual contact. 5 Moore denied the sexual assault allegations, 6 but did not dispute that he had approached or dated teenagers over the age of 16 (the age of consent in Alabama). 8 123 124 Independent witnesses confirmed that Moore had a reputation for approaching teenage girls, often at a local mall, and asking them out. 5 124 125Of the three women who accused him of sexual assault, Leigh Corfman said that Moore sexually assaulted her in 1979, when she was 14 and he was 32. Moore denied knowing or having contact with Corfman, although her mother confirmed their meeting. Beverly Young Nelson said that, in December 1977 or January 1978 when she was 16, Moore sexually assaulted her. She said that when she fought him off, he eventually gave up, telling her, Youre just a child, Im the district attorney. If you tell anyone about this no one will ever believe you. Moore denied Nelsons accusations and that he even knew her at all. Tina Johnson alleged that when she was 28 in 1991, she had visited Moore in his law office for a legal matter. She said Moore flirted with her, asked questions about her young daughters, and grabbed her buttocks as she left.Moore has offered contradictory responses on whether he knew his accusers. He had said on November 10 that he did recognize the maiden names of Debbie Wesson Gibson and Gloria Thacker Deason (Both Gibson and Deason had alleged that Moore had dated them when they were 1718) and remembered both of them as a good girl. Regarding if he had dated Gibson, Moore said I cant recall the specific dates because thats been 40 years. 126 On November 27 and November 29, Moore took a different stance, repeatedly stating I do not know any of these women while also saying that pictures of young children whose names are not mentioned and I do not know appear conveniently on the oppositions ads ... These allegations are completely false. 127 128Prominent Republicans such as John McCain and Mitt Romney called for Moore to drop out of the race after the allegations were reported. 129 130 Other senators withdrew their endorsements of Moores Senate candidacy. 131 132 133 134 Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell announced that he believes the women who made the accusations and that Moore should step aside. 135 Speaker of the House Paul Ryan also called for Moore to abandon his campaign. 136 President Donald Trump initially said Moore should step aside if the charges are true, but otherwise expressed support for Moore. 137 Trump later formally endorsed Moore. 138 139 Alabama Republicans have largely defended Moore from the accusations 140 141 an exception was Richard Shelby , the states U.S. Senator since 1987, who said two days before the election the accusations against Moore are believable and that Alabama deserves better. He said he wrote in the name of another Republican on his absentee ballot. 111Election issues and campaigns edit 2004 edit Moore considered running for the nomination of the Republican Party and the Constitution Party in the 2004 presidential election . 142 Despite encouragement from several corners, Moore did not pursue the nomination. 143In 2004, along with Herb Titus , Moore was an original drafter of the Constitution Restoration Act , 144 which sought to remove federal courts jurisdiction over a government official or entitys acknowledgment of God as the sovereign source of law, liberty, or government, and provided for the impeachment of judges who failed to do so. The bill was introduced in both houses of Congress in 2004 and then reintroduced in 2005, but languished in committee both times.See also: Alabama gubernatorial election, 2006In October 2005, Moore announced that he would run against Governor Bob Riley in the 2006 Republican gubernatorial primary. 145 Moores campaign relied largely on his popularity among Christian right voters. 145 146 However, Moore consistently performed poorly in polling and in fundraising. 146In the June 2006 primary, Riley won the primary, 306,665 (66.6 percent) to 153,354 (33.34 percent). 147 Following such a major defeat, Moore accused the chair of the states Republican Party of bias towards Riley and called on her to resign he also criticized President Bush for praising Rileys administration. His criticism of the state Republican Party was so harsh that he eventually had to call a press conference to quell rumors that he would run as an independent if he lost the Republican primary. 148 In his concession speech, Moore told supporters that Gods will has been done. Moore did not call Riley to concede and refused to support Riley in the general election because of Rileys acceptance of campaign contributions from political action committees . 148
Share614 sharesHe previously said of the surgery, which was filmed for his new reality show Rodrigos World: My life shall be changed forever as from January 2018 and by summer 2018 I will be looking like a fitness model.The Brazilian star can be seen undergoing the procedure on the cosmetic surgeons Instagram page, unearthed by MailOnline.He previously said of the surgery: My life shall be changed forever as from January 2018 and by summer 2018 I will be looking like a fitness modelBrave: The Brazilian star can be seen undergoing the procedure on the cosmetic surgeons Instagram page, unearthed by MailOnlineOne post was captioned: 0ur first male RibRemoval rodrigoalvesuk the verdict is out if Rodrigo is the first gentleman to have his ribs removed! Watch our Live Feed to Witness History!!A particularly graphic post showed Rodrigos ribs laid out on the table in front of him as the star delightedly snapped a picture of them.Rodrigo decided to dye his hair black on Monday in honour of the Times Up movement which takes a stand against the recent sexual harassment and abuse scandal in Hollywood.Dangerous procedure: The 34yearold star originally wanted to have six ribs removed, but was left frustrated when surgeons refused to perform the full procedure out of fear it may compromise his lungsExtreme measures: Rodrigo, who has spent a whopping 480,000 so far on cosmetic procedures, settled to remove four floating ribs in a 28,000 procedure for a more elegant and classic figureGuests attending the Golden Globes on Sunday all wore black to tribute the movement, but Rodrigo missed the memo and turned up in a bright white suit.Speaking to MailOnline after the show, the TV personality confessed he felt awful about his outfit, and wanted to dye his hair to make up for the blunder.He said: At the Golden Globes, I really turned heads, I mingled with Justin Timberlake and Zach Efron who gave me compliments on my looks and outfit.Awkward:Guests attending the Golden Globes on Sunday all wore black to tribute the movement, but Rodrigo missed the memo and turned up in a bright white suit (above)However, 90 of the guests were wearing black. I genuinely didnt have the chance to read the memos and my agents never told me that I had to be wearing black.Rodrigo went on to say that he was mortified to overhear TV networks ridiculing his outfit choice, and even his hair, as he stood out so much on the carpet.He continued: I got very embarrassed and upset, I didnt meant to not support or disrespect the cause against sexual harassment.I felt awful:Rodrigo admitted he was mortified to overhear TV networks ridiculing his outfit choice, and even his hair, as he stood out so much on the carpetStanding out: Rodrigo has shot to fame in recent years after spending a whopping 480,000 on over fifty cosmetic procedures, earning himself the nickname The Human Ken DollShare or comment on this article
Origin edit The origins of European engagement in marriage practice is found in the Jewish law ( Torah ), first exemplified by Abraham , and outlined in the last Talmudic tractate of the Nashim (Women) order, where marriage consists of two separate acts, called erusin (or kiddushin, meaning sanctification), which is the betrothal ceremony, and nissuin or chupah , a the actual ceremony for the marriage . Erusin changes the couples interpersonal status, while nissuin brings about the legal consequences of the change of status. (However, in the Talmud and other sources of Jewish law there is also a process, called kiddushin , corresponding to what today is called engagement. Marrying without such an agreement is considered immoral. 1 To complicate matters, erusin in modern Hebrew means engagement, not betrothal.)This was later adopted in Ancient Greece as the gamos and engeysis rituals, although unlike in Judaism the contract made in front of witness was only verbal. 2 The giving of a ring was eventually borrowed from Judaism by Roman marriage law, with the fianc presenting it after swearing the oath of marriage intent, and presenting of the gifts at the engagement party. 3Betrothed redirects here. For other uses, see Betrothed (disambiguation) .Modern engagement gifts basket in Bangladesh.Betrothal (also called espousal) is a formal state of engagement to be married .In Jewish weddings during Talmudic times (c.1st century BC 6th century AD), the two ceremonies of betrothal ( erusin ) and wedding usually took place up to a year apart the bride lived with her parents until the actual marriage ceremony ( nissuin ), which would take place in a room or tent that the groom had set up for her. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a combined ceremony performed in public. The betrothal is now generally part of the Jewish wedding ceremony, accomplished when the groom gives the bride the ring or another object of at least nominal value. 4 As mentioned above, betrothal in Judaism is separate from engagement breaking a betrothal requires a formal divorce , and violation of betrothal is considered adultery .Typical steps of a match were the following:Negotiation of a match, usually done by the couples families with bride and groom having varying levels of input, from no input, to veto power, to a fuller voice in the selection of marriage partner.This is not as widely practiced as it was historically, although it is still common in culturally conservative communities in Israel , India , Africa, and Persian Gulf countries, although most of these have a requirement that the bride be at least allowed veto power.Negotiation of bride price or dowryIn most cultures evolved from Europe, bride prices or dowries have been reduced to the engagement ring accompanying the marriage contract, while in other cultures, such as those on the Arabian Peninsula, they are still part of negotiating a marriage contract.Blessing by the parents and clergyExchange of Vows and Signing of ContractsOften one of these is omittedCelebrationEngagement photograph of Lionel Logue and Myrtle Gruenert, 1906.The exact duration of a betrothal varies according to culture and the participants needs and wishes. For adults, it may be anywhere from several hours (when the betrothal is incorporated into the wedding day itself) to a period of several years. A year and a day are common in neopagan groups today. In the case of child marriage , betrothal might last from infancy until the age of marriage.The responsibilities and privileges of betrothal vary. In most cultures, the betrothed couple is expected to spend much time together, learning about each other. In some historical cultures (including colonial North America ), the betrothal was essentially a trial marriage, with marriage only being required in cases of conception of a child. Almost all cultures are loosening restrictions against physical contact between partners, even in cultures that normally had strong prohibitions against it. The betrothal period was also considered to be a preparatory time, in which the groom built a house, started a business or otherwise proved his readiness to enter adult society.In medieval Europe , in canon law , a betrothal could be formed by the exchange of vows in the future tense (I will take you as my wifehusband, instead of I take you as my wifehusband), but sexual intercourse consummated the vows, making a binding marriage rather than a betrothal. Although these betrothals could be concluded with only the vows spoken by the couple, they had legal implications: Richard III of England had his older brothers children declared illegitimate on the grounds their father had been betrothed to another woman when he married their mother.A betrothal is considered to be a semibinding contract. Normal reasons for invalidation of a betrothal include:Revelation of a prior commitment or marriageFailure to conceive (in trial marriage cultures)Failure of either party to meet the financial and property stipulations of the betrothal contractNormally, either party can break a betrothal, though some financial penalty (such as forfeit of the bride price) usually applies. In some common law countries, including England and Wales and many US states, it was once possible for the spurned partner (often only the woman) to sue the other for breach of promise or heartbalm. This provided some protection in an age where virginity at marriage was considered important and having a failed engagement could damage ones reputation, but this tort has become obsolete in most jurisdictions as attitudes to premarital sex have softened and emphasis shifted to allowing people to leave loveless relationships. 5Protestant Churches edit The Rite of Betrothal in the Anglican Communion is found within The Book of Common Prayer , first published in 1549. 6 The Anglican Communion, as well as the Methodist Church and Presbyterian Church, has questions responses for family members in its Rite of Betrothal. 7Orthodox Churches edit In the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Rite of Betrothal is traditionally performed in the narthex (entranceway) of the church, to indicate the couples first entrance into the married estate. The priest blesses the couple and gives them lit candles to hold. Then, after a litany , and a prayer at which everyone bows, he places the brides ring on the ring finger of the grooms right hand, and the grooms ring on the brides finger. The rings are subsequently exchanged three times, either by the priest or by the best man, after which the priest says a final prayer. Originally, the betrothal service would take place at the time the engagement was announced. In recent times, however, it tends to be performed immediately before the wedding ceremony itself. The exchange of rings is not a part of the wedding service in the Eastern Churches, but only occurs at the betrothal. Traditionally, the grooms ring is gold and the brides ring is silver. 8The Trs Riches Heures du Duc de Berry depicting a betrothal. Muse Cond , Chantilly .Roman Catholic Church edit Historically, betrothal in Roman Catholicism was a formal contract considered as binding as marriage, and a divorce was necessary to terminate a betrothal. 9 Betrothed couples were regarded legally as husband and wife even before their wedding and physical union. The concept of an official engagement period in Western European culture may have begun in 1215 at the Fourth Lateran Council , headed by Pope Innocent III , which decreed that marriages are to be ... announced publicly in the churches by the priests during a suitable and fixed time so that, if legitimate impediments exist, they may be made known. 10 11 Such a formal church announcement of the intent to marry is known as banns . In some jurisdictions, reading the banns may be part of one type of legal marriage.Main article: Engagement ringA white gold wedding ring and a single diamond , gold banded engagement ring. The engagement ring is usually worn on the outside.Customs for engagement rings vary according to time, place, and culture. An engagement ring has historically been uncommon, and when such a gift was given, it was separate from the wedding ring.The first recorded tradition of giving a ring for marriage is in Genesis 24:22 of the Hebrew Bible when a golden nose ring ( Chayei Sarah 24:22) was given by Eliezer of Damascus to Rebecca , when? 12 with Saadiah Gaon also citing as a possible source of the practice in the phrase in Nehemiah 7:46 benei tabbaot (children of the rings). citation needed The latter case refers to betrothal (see above) rather than engagement one of the three ways in which betrothal may be effected in Judaism is by the husband giving the bride money or an object of at least nominal value. In fact, it is a longstanding practice within Judaism to contract the betrothal with a ring.Romantic rings from the time of the Roman Empire sometimes bore clasped hands symbolizing contract, 13 from which the later Celtic Claddagh symbol (two hands clasping a heart) may have evolved as a symbol of love and commitment between two people. Romans believed the circle was a bond between the two people who were to be married and signified eternity, but was first practiced on the fourth fingerring finger by the Romans , who believed this finger to be the beginning of the vena amoris (vein of love), the vein that leads to the heart. 14 In cultures with European origin, and many other countries, an engagement ring is worn following the practice of the Romans who ...wore the ring either on the right middle finger or the left ring 4th finger, from which, according to ancient Egyptian physicians, a nerve led directly to the heart. 14 The custom in Continental Europe and other countries is to wear it on the right hand. One historical exception arose in monarchical regimes, in which a nobleman entering into morganatic marriage , a marriage in which the person, usually the woman, of lower rank stayed at the same rank instead of rising ranks, would present their left hand to receive the ring, hence the alternative term marriage with the left hand (Ger. Ehe zur linken Hand), the offspring of such marriages considered to be disinherited from birth. 15The modern Western form of the practice of giving or exchanging engagement rings is traditionally thought to have begun in 1477 when Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor , gave Mary of Burgundy a diamond ring as an engagement present. 16In other countries like Argentina , men and women each wear a ring similar to wedding bands. They are made of silver (alianza de plata) when manifesting an informal boyfriendgirlfriend relationship, though this first step might not always happen howbeit depending on finances, this may be the only ring given at all. The gold band (anillo de compromiso or alianza de oro) is given to the bride when the commitment is formal and the optional diamond ring (cintillo) is reserved for the wedding ceremony when the groom gives it to the bride. The gold band that the groom wore during the engagement or a new one, as some men choose not to wear them during engagement is then given to the groom by the bride and the bride receives both the original gold band and the new diamond at the ceremony. The brides diamond ring is worn on top of the engagement band at the wedding and thereafter, especially at formal occasions or parties otherwise the engagement band suffices for daily wear for both parties. At the wedding, the rings are swapped from the right to the left hand. In Brazil , they are always made of gold, and there is no tradition for the engagement ring. Both men and women wear the wedding band on their right hand while engaged, and, after they marry, they shift the rings to their left hands. In Nordic countries such as Finland and Norway , both men and women wear an engagement ring.In the modern era, some womens wedding rings are made into two separate pieces. One part is given to her to wear as an engagement ring when she accepts the marriage proposal and the other during the wedding ceremony. When worn together, the two rings look like one piece of jewelry. citation needed The engagement ring is not worn during the wedding ceremony, when the wedding ring is put by the groom on the finger of the bride, and sometimes by the bride onto the grooms finger. After the wedding, the engagement ring is put back on, and is usually worn on the outside of the wedding ring.Main article: Engagement partySome engagements are announced at an engagement party, traditionally hosted by the brides parents. These parties are given in the familys usual style of entertainment. Traditionally, engagement parties were normal parties at which a surprise announcement of the engagement was made by the father of the bride to his guests. Therefore, it is not a traditional giftgiving occasion since no guests were supposed to be aware of the engagement until after their arrival.In modern times, engagement parties often celebrate a previously publicized engagement. Whether presents are given at these engagement parties varies from culture to culture.Wikimedia Commons has media related to Betrothal . To be precise, nesiuin is the process, and chuppah is the method.SourcesKaplan, Rabbi Aryeh (1983). Made in Heaven, A Jewish Wedding Guide. New York Jerusalem: Moznaim Publishing., Chapter 4, See also footnote 1 and 2. The author uses the specific term proposal, and considers this the first step in a formal engagement. Norman Bancroft Hunt, Living in Ancient Greece, Infobase Publishing, 2008, p.44 Philippe Aris, Paul Veyne, eds., A History of Private Life: From pagan Rome to Byzantium, Harvard University Press, 1992, p.467 See Talmud Kiddushin , Mishna 1:1 and the main articleNancy R. Gallo (2004). Left at the Altar. Introduction to Family Law. Cengage Learning. pp.114116. ISBN 1401814530 .Hefling, Charles Shattuck, Morehouse Cynthia (1 July 2006). The Oxford Guide to The Book of Common Prayer. Oxford University Press. p.510. ISBN 9780199723898 .Prichard, Robert W. (1 January 2009). Cohabiting Couples and Cold Feet: A Practical MarriagePreparation Guide for Clergy. Church Publishing, Inc. p.107. ISBN 9780898696035 .The Episcopal Book of Common Prayer of 1979 reworked the betrothal by adding a positive question to the congregation immediately after the couple speaks their words of betrothal. The celebrant asks the congregation, Will all of you witnessing these promises do all in your power to uphold these two persons in their marriage? The congregations response is, We will. This inquiry was expanded in The United Methodist Hymnal (1989) and the Presybterian Book of Common Worship (1993) into separate questions for family members and for other members in the congregation.Hapgood, Isabel F. (1922). Service Book of the Holy OrthodoxCatholic Apostolic Church. Englewood, NJ: Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese (published 1975): 291 ff, 6045
Share560 sharesAccording to Kan Kan News , the boy, who is known as Yuan Yuan from Dongyang, Zhejiang Province, had been suffering from constipation since birth.In the past seven years, Yuan Yuans stomach would swell whenever he ate. He also found it difficult to defecate and felt his belly was about to explode.Dr Lu Guojian, surgeon at Dongyang Women and Children Hospital, examined Yuan Yuan. They said Yuan Yuan had Hirschsprungs disease, also known as congenital megacolon.Hirschsprungs disease is related to the missing of nerve cells that can control the bowel muscles for excretion, stated the NHS .The swollen intestines has already taken up half of the abdomen and pressed onto Yuan Yuans lungs and liver.His intestines are filled with excrement and seen swelling up in the abdomen area (left). Doctors performed a threehour surgery to remove a 7lb stool from his body (right)Yuan Yuan is now recovering from the surgery and will be able to excrete from now onDr Lu performed surgery on Yuan Yuan and recalled that the swollen intestines popped out due to the pressure in the abdomen.Under the threehour precedure, a 60centimetrelong (1.96 ft) , 12centimetrewide (4.7 inches) intestine was successfully removed from Yuan Yuans stomach. It was said to befilled with faeces and food residue.The sevenpound megacolon is around the size of a basketball.Yuan Yuan is now recovering from the surgery. Doctors said he should no longer suffer from constipation.Dr Lu reminded new parents that they should notice signs of Hirschsprungs disease in a newborn baby or infant.Symptoms such as failing to pass meconium, having darkgreen faeces within the first 48 hours after birth, a swollen belly and persistent constipation can be related toHirschsprungs disease.However, doctors said it could also be a genetic disease.HIRSCHSPRUNGS DISEASEHirschsprungs disease is a rare condition that causes faeces to become stuck in the bowels. It mainly affects babies and young children.It means the nerves that control the movement of faeces are missing from a section at the end of the bowel, which means faeces can build up and form a blockage.This can cause severe constipation, and occasionally lead to a serious bowel infection called enterocolitis if its not identified and treated early on.Symptoms of Hirschsprungs disease are usually noticeable from soon after a baby is born, although occasionally theyre not obvious until a child is a year or two old.Signs of the condition in a baby include:Failing to pass meconium within 48 hours the dark, tarlike faeces that healthy babies pass soon after being bornA swollen bellyVomiting green fluid (bile)Its not clear what causes the disease, but its not thought to be caused by anything the mother did while she was pregnant. Itsometimes run in families.All children with Hirschsprungs disease will need surgery.
FollowIve been married for three years. It was an arranged marriage. At a very early stage Id started suspecting that my wife had had sex before marriage. This disturbed me deeply and weve had innumerable discussions about this since then.We live with my parents. Recently others in the family eavesdropped on us and unfortunately managed to listen in on some of our private conversations regarding this issue, i.e. her experience of sex before marriage. This was deeply humiliating and painful for both of us.My father has recently taunted her with this overheard info first time in three years. I cant tell you how guilty I feel.At the same time I cant drive away the visions of her having sex before marriage with another man. I find myself wondering about the details like how she managed to have sex before marriage with anyone in a small town, how deeply in love she mustve been to have disregarded the most important family restriction, whether she gave him farewell sex etc.She hasnt confessed anything about any sex before marriage to this date in spite of my insistence. Whenever I ask her anything about this she gives vague replies, urging me to move on and look at the future instead of the past. Id expressed intentions of joining Facebook and connecting with her batch mates in the hope of finding out about her past and whether she had sex before marriage. She vehemently opposed this and refused to give away even the names of her classmates. Incidentally, one of her friends visited us and hinted that my wife is not as simple as she pretends to be.As of today Ive planned to post questions about her past relationship(s) in the confessions page of her school. Ive let her know of my intentions. This has made her very nervous and disturbed. Ironically, me too.In spite of what all this might suggest, I love her. Genuinely. Please help me.AnonymousPhoto by banzainetsurferSex before marriage? Dont dwell on itNormally I would tell you to close your eyes, take a deep breath and let it go. Usually you achieve nothing by finding out the details of your spouses sexlife before heshe met you. That kind of probing is guaranteed to make any relationship worse.However, theres another aspect to this in your case.Youve mentioned one of her friends has tried dropping you hints about her past. The only way knowing everything about ones spouses past life can help is in tackling nosy outsiders like this friend, eager to spill the beans and laugh as the two of you shred your married life to pieces. Thats something you have a right to protect yourself against.So the middle ground here is to know only as much as is necessary, and in this case you have a right to demand that information from your wife.What you need to know about sex before marriageHave an open discussion with her. Tell her first that you love her as she is, and that you have realized that finding out intricate details about her past life is not going to help your relationship. So you dont want to know any details.This will put her at ease.Then mention to her that, at the same time you dont want to receive info about her past life from outsiders and look like a fool. Between the two of you, you might have issues (every couple has). But to outsiders, you must put up a joint front you must look like one inseparable unit. Hence you need to know at least what others know i.e. basics like how many past relationships shes been in, how many of them shes had sex with and who was the last. Emphasize that you dont want to know any details. This would increase her trust in you manifold.Believe me Anon, you do not need to know any more than this to ward off wellmeaning hints and suggestions from outsiders.At the same time you must promise (her and yourself) never to entertain these advances from outsiders.How to tackle sex before marriage blackmailersWhat does not entertaining their advances mean?Photo by VishalSinghxIt would mean the following:When someone hints to you that they can give you info about your wifes past life, the first thing you should do is change the topic and discretely make it clear that you dont want to discuss your wifes private life with them. Yes, I know it will be difficult to overcome your urges of curiosity in such situations but youhave to do it for the sake of your relationship.If they persist, you might even have to tell that to them in as many words. Tell them, If theres anything you want to tell me about my wife, you neednt, cause I already know everything about her. And Im sure if you had to choose whom to trust between your spouse and anyone else, youd choose your spouse. Me too. :). That should kill their excitement as they realize youre not going to believe anything they say.In the rarest of rare cases, if they directly give you unsolicited information about your wife in spite of your lack of interest, you should stay calm and just say, I already know the truth, without confirming whether you believe them or not. (If theyre telling you the truth, they should get the impression that you already know it. If theyre making up lies they should get the impression that you can see through them.)Sex before marriage is a private issueComing to the question of your parents reaction you should remember that your wife is living with your parents. Its she whos moved to a new home and made a new family her own, not them. Hence its your responsibility to make sure she doesnt receive unwarranted treatment from them. You have to make it very clear to your parents and the rest of your family that you and your wife respect them and have responsibilities towards them, but your private life is yours. And their interference in it is entirely unwelcome.Spouses might have the right to ask each other private questions. Their parents and extended families have absolutely none.But each Indian family works in its own complicated way (dont take it personally, I know were like that only)). I understand it might be impossible for you to convey this to your parents in as many words. If thats the case, tell them politely (not in front of your wife, of course) that if they have any questions about your wife, they can ask you, not her, and not in front of her.Let me know what action you took.All the best. :)
What Every Wife of a Sex Addict Has a Right to Know About Her Husbands Recovery Written by Ella HutchinsonWhen sex addicts are in early recovery, their wives (if they have chosen to stay in the marriage) live in fear. Fear that you will relapse. Fear that you will cheat again. Fear that you may lose your job because of a slip at work. There are more fears than I can list here.Bottom line: They fear being hurt again. Even wives of sex addicts farther along in recovery may still be living in fear, or that old fear may creep up again, if you arent keeping her in the know about your recovery.But you are supposed to be in control of your recovery, right? Your wife learned early on that she didnt cause it, cant change it, and cant control it. So wheres the balance? Can you be in charge of your own recovery and help your wife feel safe at the same time?You Might Have Received Some Bad AdviceIf you are one of those who is taking recovery seriously you have probably received guidance from many individuals: therapists, sponsors, coaches, books, meetings, etc. Some of this guidance may have been conflicting. It is important to remember that those who are there to help you through your personal recovery are not often marriage experts and some of their wellmeaning marriage advice may hurt more than help.It is likely that you have been told by someif not mostof those guiding you in recovery that your wife needs to stay on her side of the street. (This was a quote used in a recent movie about sex addiction, referring to a popular belief about what recovery should look like for a couple.)Now, think about how many guys you hear in your recovery group say, I am doing everything right, I am going to meetings, therapy, staying sober, but she is still angry! You might even be one of the guys saying this. How frustrating it must be to be working so hard and go home to someone who may yell, throw things, blame, and not even trust that you are doing what you say you are doing. And what are these guys usually told? This is about her, not you. By putting your recovery first you are doing what is best for her. This is the best way you can love her and if she cant see that she is being selfish. She needs to work her program and let you work yours. Dont let her hold you back. Men tell me all the time that this is the kind of advice they are being given.In the famous words of Dr. Phil, Hows that working for you?You Are Still the ProblemConsidering the unstable state your wife may appear to be in, or the stonewalling you may be having to endure, the advice mentioned above might seem to make a lot of sense. And it can feel like such a relief to hear that her rage and withdrawal and mood swings are not your fault. Youre dealing with enough shame already.But heres the cold, harsh reality. You are the reason your wife is in pain. There is no doubt your wife had some degree of dysfunction in her past (please find me someone who hasnt), and this current situation might have brought up some of these issues for her. But no matter how you look at it, with rare exception, your actions are the primary reason she is feeling what she is feeling now. I say this not to shame you, but to hopefully help make all this a little easier on you.Dont Neglect Your Marriage for the Sake of Your RecoveryOne way you can make your relationship with your wife go a little more smoothly is to keep her informed of what your recovery looks like and even allow her to be involved. Consider this: Your actions put her where she is. Your story is now her story too. She is doubting everything because you gave her reason to. Put yourself in her shoes. Her world has been turned upside down. Does she deserve to be told to butt out and wait for you to be ready to be there for her? Of course not. But chances are that is what has happened.My advice? Ignore all advice that sounds anything like what I mentioned abovethat her side of the street stuff. Should your individual recovery be a priority? Absolutely! Does that mean you cant focus on your marriage at the same time? No. But some will tell you this. Some will tell you that is just too much. What do you think? Are you incapable of being present in your marriage while doing recovery? Maybe not, and your marriage will sufferor endif this is the case.Related: Life After Porn5 Things My Husband Did toRebuild TrustBut if you can get rid of those toxic ideas, and recognize you are stronger than some may want you to think you are, your marriage can survive and even thrive! Ive seen it happen enough to know it is possible, even in the direst of circumstances.Letting Your Wife Into Your Recovery ProcessSo, how do you let your wife in while respecting the anonymity of the group, while being able to feel safe in your counseling sessions without having to worry about having to go back and report everything that was said? How do you allow her to be involved while not feeling controlled and remaining in charge of your own recovery?You take control! Dont wait for the questions. Give her so much information that she doesnt have to ask. (But know she probably still will and thats okay.) In my extensive experience working with wives of sex addicts, here are some of the things they want to know and have a right to know:What happens in 12 step groups? What is the format? How does it start? How does it end? Is there discussion? What kinds of things do people talk about? What happens before and after? Are there any women in the group (I am not a fan of this practice)? If so, are they a threat to your sobriety? Do you get ideas about acting out from hearing the other guys? Do you get triggered? How is the group helpful for you?What are the 12 steps? How long are they supposed to take on average? What step are you on? How is it going?Do you have a sponsor? How often do you meet? What do you talk about? If not, are you looking for one?What is in that book (the green book or the white book)? Can I look at it?What do you and your therapist talk about? How often do you go to therapy? Do you talk about me? What has he told you that you need to be doing? Are you doing it?What else are you doing for recovery?What are some tools you have learned to manage triggers?These are just a few examples. Your wife can clue you in to what she needs to know. Ask her how you can help her feel safer about your recovery. Ask her what you can do to make her feel like she is a part of your recovery. Chances are she will be blown away.If your wife is the one who sent you this article, dont get upset or feel like she is trying to control you. She has given you a gift. She is extending an olive branch. Instead of being frustrated that she is not where you would like her to be in her healing process, consider how blessed you are that she is still here at all!A Sample ConversationThe above examples of what wives want and deserve to know can feel daunting. It may feel like she is trying to take charge of your recovery. In a minute Ill explain what she doesnt need to know. Hopefully that will help both you and her to have more productive conversations. But first, here is an example of how you can address some of the above questions:Honey, I have realized that you must feel pretty left out of my recovery. I know I am gone so much with meetings and therapy and that must be so hard for you after all you have been through. I cant even imagine how painful this has been for you. I dont know how much you know about 12 step programs like the one I am involved in. I printed out the steps so you can read them in case you dont know what they are. I finally found a sponsor, and we will start meeting once a week on Tuesdays for lunch. He will be helping me work through the steps. He said they should take about a year to complete on average, but this can vary from person to person. I am currently on step four and am finding it to be a struggle, but it is important to me so I am not giving up even though sometimes I feel tempted to. Fortunately my sponsor is there to talk to me when I am feeling overwhelmed. Is there anything else you want to know about my recovery? I really dont want you to feel like I am purposely keeping anything from you. I know you have dealt with that enough.What Is Okay to Keep Private?Here are some things that are okay and even important to keep private. When I explain this to wives they are almost always very receptive and understanding about this:First, of course, the identity of those in your group. Be careful about even giving information that could clue her in to someone in the group. She might be in a support group with his wife. This is common.The specifics about what you talk about in group. This can be shared if you want, but you should never feel pressured to tell your wife what you shared in group. If she asks for this information, remember, she is just afraid. Explain gently that you need to feel safe to share openly and that you dont want to hide anything from her. If she is struggling with this, suggest discussing it with a therapist. Above all else, be patient with her about these kinds of things.The specifics about what you talk about in therapy. You can tell her you are working on family of origin issues, selfesteem issues, or automatic thoughts, for example, without going into more detail than that. This is enough information for her to feel safe that you are working through the issues that contributed to your addiction. Remember, thats what this is all about. She wants to know you are doing all you can do to keep from hurting her again.Boundaries vs. ResponsibilitiesWhile it is okay for your wife to set a boundary that you get involved in a 12step program and therapy (remember, this is about her feelings of safety, not control) you should be the one finding the therapist and meetings.If she is doing this, lovingly tell her that you want to be the one to do these things because it shouldnt be her responsibility and isnt fair to her. If she is resistant, dont let it turn into an argument. Get help from a professional who specializes in working with partners of sex addicts from a sex addictioninduced trauma perspective .Keep TryingThe kind of conversation outlined in italics above will not save your marriage, but it could be what gets the ball rolling in the right direction. Be prepared for things not to go as planned. Depending on where you all are, your wife may even get angry or skeptical about why you are suddenly doing this. She may refuse to listen. But you tried and thats what counts.Even though she may be afraid to believe anything you tell her or show any vulnerability, she does notice these things, and they do make a difference. Consistency over time is what she needs to see. Dont give up. Keep trying. If she wont have this conversation with you, make sure she knows you are there when she is ready to talk, and remind her of this often.If there are still secrets in the marriage, your wife probably senses this and this will hinder any effort you take to improve your marriage. Even if there are no more secrets she will still doubt because of the years of lying that have given her no reason to trust. A formal or clinical disclosure, done with the guidance of a skilled therapist, is a crucial first step to finding recovery in your marriage. I find these are much more successful when done in the context of a couples three day intensive. Click here to learn more about what an intensive is and how it can help save your marriage.About the author, Ella HutchinsonElla Hutchinson is a Licensed Professional Counselor, Certified Clinical Sexual Addiction Specialist, Certified Clinical Partner Specialist, and Certified Clinical Trauma Professional. Ella served three years on the board of the Association for Partners of Sex Addicts Trauma Specialists (APSATS). She helped write the curriculum used by APSATS that trains clinicians in the Multidimensional Partner Trauma Model developed by Barbara Steffens. She is currently a board member of the International Association for Certified Clinical Sex Addiction Specialists. Ella and her husband, Jeff, work together helping couples find healing from sexual addiction.View all posts by Ella Hutchinson Hope After PornPorn use (and even adultery) doesnt always mean that a marriage is over. 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